cdrw - CD read and write


     cdrw -i [-vSCO] [-d device] [-p speed] [image-file]

     cdrw  -a  [-vSCO]  [-d device]  [-p speed]   [-T audio-type]
     audio-file1 [audio-file2...]

     cdrw -x [-v] [-d device] [-T audio-type]  track-number  out-

     cdrw -c [-vSC] [-d device] [-p speed] [-m tmp-dir]  [-s src-

     cdrw -b [-v] [-d device] all | session

     cdrw -M [-v] [-d device]

     cdrw -l [-v]

     cdrw -h


     The cdrw command provides the ability  to  create  data  and
     audio  CDs.  It  also  provides the ability to extract audio
     tracks from an audio CD. Any  MMC-compliant  CD-R  or  CD-RW
     drive can be used with cdrw.

     cdrw will search for a CD writer  device  connected  to  the
     system,  unless  the  user  specifies  a  device with the -d
     option. If it finds a single such writer device, it will use
     that as the default CD writer device for the command.

     When more than one CD writer is connected to the system, use
     the  -d option to indicate which device is desired. The dev-
     ice name can be specified in  one  of  the  following  ways:
     /dev/rdsk/cNtNdNsN,  cNtNdNsN,  cNtNdN,  or  a symbolic name
     used by volume manager, such as  cdrom  or  cdrom1.  The  -l
     option will provide a list of CD writers.

     For  instructions  on   adding   a   USB-mass-storage-class-
     compliant CD-RW to your system, see scsa2usb(7D).

  Creating Data CDs
     When creating data CDs, cdrw uses the track-at-once mode  of
     writing.  With  the  -i option, the user will specify a file
     that contains the data to write on CD media. In the  absence
     of such a file, cdrw will read data from standard input.

     In either case, the data  will  typically  first  have  been
     prepared  by  using  the  mkisofs(1M) command to convert the
     file and file information into the High Sierra  format  used
     on CDs. See the examples that include use of this command.

  Creating Audio CDs
     For creating an audio CD, using the  -a  option,  single  or
     multiple  audio  files  can  be  specified. All of the audio
     files should be in the supported  audio  formats.  Currently
     approved formats are:

          sun   Sun .au files with data in Red Book CDDA form

          wav   RIFF (.wav) files with data in Red Book CDDA form

          cda   .cda files having raw CD audio data (that is,  16
                bit  PCM  stereo  at  44.1  KHz  sample  rate  in
                little-endian byteorder)

          aur   .aur files  having  raw  CD  data  in  big-endian

     If no audio format is specified, cdrw  tries  to  understand
     the  audio file format based on the file extension. The case
     of the characters in the extension is ignored. If  a  format
     is  specified using the -T option, it will be assumed as the
     audio file type for all the  files  specified.  Also,  -cdrw
     will  close  the  session  after  writing  the audio tracks.
     Therefore, the tracks to be written should be specified in a
     single command line.

  Extracting Audio
     cdrw can also be used for  extracting  audio  data  from  an
     audio  CD  with  the -x option. The CD should have tracks in
     Red Book CDDA form. By default, the output format  is  based
     on  the  file extension. A user can specify a sun, wav, cda,
     or aur output format using the -T option.

  Copying CDs
     cdrw can be used to copy single session data CD-ROMs and Red
     Book audio CDs. For copying a CD, cdrw looks for a specified
     source device. If no source device is specified  when  using
     the  -c  option, the current CD writing device is assumed to
     be the source. cdrw will extract the track or tracks into  a
     temporary  file  and  will look for a blank writable CD-R/RW
     media in the current CD writing device. If no such media  is
     found,  the user will be asked to insert a blank writable CD
     media in the current CD writing device. If enough  space  is
     not  available in the default temporary directory, an alter-
     native directory can be specified using the -m option.

  Erasing CD-RW Media

     Users have to erase the CD-RW media before  it  can  be  re-
     written.  With the -b option, the following flavors of eras-
     ing are currently supported:

                Erase the last session.

          all   Erase the entire media.

     If the session erasing type is used,  cdrw  will  erase  the
     last  session.  If there is only one session recorded on the
     CD-RW (for example,  a  data/audio  CD-RW  created  by  this
     tool),  then session erasing is useful as it will only erase
     the portion that is recorded, leaving behind a  blank  disk.
     This is faster than erasing the entire media.

     The all erasing type should be used if it is a  multisession
     disk,  or  the last session is not closed, or disk status is
     unknown, and the user wishes to erase the  disk.  With  this
     type of erase, cdrw will erase the entire disk.

  Checking device-list or media-status
     The user can get a list  of  CD  writing  devices  currently
     present  in  the system with the -l option. Also, for a par-
     ticular media, the user can  get  the  blanking  status  and
     table  of contents through the -M option. The -M option also
     prints information about the last session start address  and
     the  next writable address. This information, along with the
     -O option, can be used to create  multisession  CDs.  Please
     refer to mkisofs(1M) for more information.


     The following options are supported:

     -a    Creates an audio disk. At least  one  audio-file  name
           must  be  specified.  A  CD  can not have more than 99
           audio tracks, so no more than 99 audio  files  can  be
           specified.  Also,  the  maximum audio data that can be
           written to the media by default is 74 minutes,  unless
           -C is specified.

     -b    Blanks a CD-RW media. The  type  of  erasing  must  be
           specified by the all or session argument.

     -c    Copies a CD. If no other argument  is  specified,  the
           default  CD writing device is assumed to be the source
           device as well. In this case,  the  copying  operation
           will  read the source media into a temporary directory
           and will prompt the user to place a blank  media  into
           the drive for copying to proceed.

     -C    Uses media stated capacity. Without this option,  cdrw
           will  use a default value for writable CD media, which
           is 74 minutes for an audio CD or 681984000 bytes for a
           data CD.

     -d    Specifies CD writing device.

     -h    Help. Prints usage message.

     -i    Specifies image file for creating data CDs.  The  file
           size should be less than what can be written on a CD-R
           or CD-RW media, which is 681984000 bytes by default or
           the  media  stated  capacity if the -C option is used.
           Also, it is better to have the file locally  available
           instead  of  having  it  on an NFS-mounted filesystem,
           because the CD writing  process  expects  data  to  be
           available continuously without interruptions.

     -l    Lists all the CD writers found in the system.

     -m    Uses an alternate temporary directory instead of  sys-
           tem default temporary directory for storing track data
           while copying a CD. An alternate  temporary  directory
           might  be  required because the amount of data on a CD
           can be huge (as much as 800 Mbytes for  an  80  minute
           audio  CD)  and the system default temporary directory
           might not have that much space.

     -M    Reports media status. cdrw will report if the media is
           blank   or  not,  its  table  of  contents,  the  last
           session's start address, and the next writable address
           if the disk is open.

     -O    Keeps the disk open. cdrw will close the session,  but
           it will keep the disk open so that another session can
           be added later on to create a multisession disk.

     -p    Sets the CD writing speed. For example, -p 4 will  set
           the speed to 4X. If this option is not specified, cdrw
           will use the default speed of the CD writer.  If  this
           option  is  specified,  cdrw will try to set the drive
           write speed to this value, but there is  no  guarantee
           of the speed actually used by the drive.

     -s    Specifies source device for copying CD.

     -S    Simulation mode. In this mode, cdrw will do everything
           with  the  drive  laser turned off, so nothing will be
           written to the media. This can be used  to  verify  if
           the  system can provide data at a rate good enough for
           CD writing.

     -T    Audio format to use extracting audio files or  reading
           audio  files for audio CD creation. The audio-type can
           be sun, wav, cda, or aur.

     -v    Verbose mode.

     -x    Extracts audio data from an audio track.


     Example 1: Creating a data CD

     example% cdrw -i /local/iso_image

     Example 2: Creating a CD from a directory

     This example creates a CD from the directory tree /home/foo:

     example% mkisofs -r /home/foo 2>/dev/null | cdrw -i -p 1

     Example 3: Extracting an audio track number

     This   example   extracts   audio   track   number   1    to

     example% cdrw -x -T wav 1 /home/foo/song1.wav

     Example 4: Using wav files

     This example creates an audio CD from wav files on disk:

     example% cdrw -a song1.wav song2.wav song3.wav song4.wav

     Example 5: Erasing a CD-RW media

     This example erases a CD-RW media in a CD-RW drive:

     example% cdrw -b all

     Example 6: Creating a data CD with multiple drives

     This example creates a data CD on  a  system  with  multiple
     CD-R/RW drives:

     example% cdrw -d c1t6d0s2 -i /home/foo/iso-image

     Example 7: Checking data delivery rate

     This example checks if the system can provide data to a  CD-
     RW drive at a rate sufficient for the write operation:

     example% cdrw -S -i /home/foo/iso-image

     Example 8: Running at a higher priority

     This example runs cdrw at a higher priority (for  root  user

     example# priocntl -e -p 60 cdrw -i /home/foo/iso-image

     Example 9: Creating a multi-session disk

     Create the first session image using mkisofs(1M) and  record
     it onto the disk without closing the disk:

     example% cdrw -O -i /home/foo/iso-image

     Additional sessions can be added to an open disk by creating
     an  image  with mkisofs(1M) using the session start and next
     writable address reported by cdrw.

     example% cdrw -M

     Track No. |Type    |Start address
      1        |Data    | 0
     Leadout   |Data    | 166564

     Last session start address: 162140
     Next writable address: 173464

     example% mkisofs -o /tmp/image2 -r -C 0,173464 -M \
        /dev/rdsk/c0t2d0s2 /home/foo


     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWcdrw                    |


     audioconvert(1),  mkisofs(1M),  priocntl(1),  attributes(5),
     rbac(5), scsa2usb(7D), sd(7D)


     The CD writing process requires data to  be  supplied  at  a
     constant  rate  to  the  drive.  It  is  advised to keep I/O
     activity to a minimum and shut down the related applications
     while writing CDs.

     When making copies or extracting audio tracks, it is  better
     to  use an MMC compliant source CD-ROM drive. The CD writing
     device can be used for this purpose.

     Before writing a CD, ensure that the media is blank by using
     the  -M  option  and  use the -S simulation mode to test the
     system to make sure it can  provide  data  at  the  required
     rate.  In case the system is not able to provide data at the
     required rate, try simulation with a slower write speed  set
     through  the  -p option. Users can also try to run cdrw at a
     higher priority using the priocntl(1) command.

     The -p option is provided for users who  are  aware  of  the
     CD-R/RW  drive  and its capabilities to operate at different
     write speeds. Some commercially available drives handle  the
     drive  speed setting command differently, so use this option

     Most commercially available drives allow writing  beyond  74
     minutes  as  long as the media has the capacity (such as 80-
     minute media). However, such capability of writing beyond 74
     minutes  might  not be supported by the drive in use. If the
     drive being used supports such capability, then use  the  -C
     option to indicate that the tool should rely on the capacity
     indicated by the media.

     The cdrw command uses rbac(5) to control user access to  the
     devices. By default, cdrw is accessible to all users but can
     be restricted to individual users. Please refer to "Adminis-
     tering  CD-R/CD-RW  devices"  in  the  System Administration
     Guide: Basic Administration for more information.

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