# dc(1)

```

```

## NAME

```     dc - desk calculator

```

## SYNOPSIS

```     dc [filename]

```

## DESCRIPTION

```     dc is an arbitrary precision arithmetic package.  Ordinarily
it  operates  on  decimal  integers,  but one may specify an
input base, output base, and a number of  fractional  digits
to  be maintained. The overall structure of dc is a stacking
(reverse Polish) calculator. If an argument is given,  input
is  taken  from that file until its end, then from the stan-
dard input.

bc is a preprocessor for dc that provides infix notation and
a  C-like syntax that implements functions. bc also provides
reasonable control structures for programs. See bc(1).

```

## USAGE

```     The following constructions are recognized:

number
The value of the number is pushed  on  the  stack.   A
number  is  an  unbroken string of the digits 0-9.  It
may be preceded by an  underscore (_) to input a nega-
tive number.  Numbers may  contain decimal points.

+ - / * % ^
The top two values on the stack are  added  (+),  sub-
tracted  (-), multiplied (*), divided (/), remaindered
(%), or exponentiated (^). The two entries are  popped
off  the  stack;  the result is pushed on the stack in
their place. Any fractional part  of  an  exponent  is
ignored.

sx    The top of the stack  is  popped  and  stored  into  a
register  named  x,  where x may be any character.  If
the s is capitalized, x is treated as a stack and  the
value is pushed on it.

lx    The value in register x is pushed on the  stack.   The
zero value.  If the l is capitalized,  register  x  is
treated  as  a  stack and its top value is popped onto
the main stack.

d     The top value on the stack is duplicated.

p     The top value on the stack is printed.  The top  value
remains  unchanged.

P     Interprets the top of the stack as  an  ASCII  string,
removes it,  and prints it.

f     All values on the stack are printed.

q     Exits the program.  If executing a string, the  recur-
sion level is popped by two.

Q     Exits the program.  The top  value  on  the  stack  is
popped  and  the   string execution level is popped by
that value.

x     Treats the top element of the  stack  as  a  character
string and executes  it as a string of dc commands.

X     Replaces the number on the top of the stack  with  its
scale factor.

[ ... ]
Puts the bracketed ASCII string onto the  top  of  the
stack.

<x  >x  =x
The top two elements of the stack are popped and  com-
pared. Register x is evaluated if they obey the stated
relation.

v     Replaces the top element on the stack  by  its  square
root.   Any   existing fractional part of the argument
is taken into account, but  otherwise the scale factor
is ignored.

!     Interprets the rest of the line as a shell command.

c     All values on the stack are popped.

i     The top value on the stack is popped and used  as  the

I     Pushes the input base on the top of the stack.

o     The top value on the stack is popped and used  as  the

O     Pushes the output base on the top of the stack.

k     The top of the stack is popped, and that value is used
as  a   non-negative  scale  factor:  the  appropriate
number of places are  printed  on  output,  and  main-
tained  during multiplication, division,  and exponen-
tiation.  The interaction of scale factor, input base,
and  output base will be reasonable if all are changed
together.

K     Pushes the current scale factor  on  the  top  of  the
stack.

z     The stack level is pushed onto the stack.

Z     Replaces the number on the top of the stack  with  its
length.

?     A line of input is taken from the input  source  (usu-
ally the terminal) and executed.

Y     Displays dc debugging information.

; :   are used by  bc(1) for array operations.

```

## EXAMPLES

```     Example 1: Printing the first ten values of n!

This example prints the first ten values of n!:

[la1+dsa*pla10>y]sy
0sa1
lyx

```

## ATTRIBUTES

```     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
butes:

____________________________________________________________
|       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
|_____________________________|_____________________________|
| Availability                | SUNWesu                     |
|_____________________________|_____________________________|

```

```     bc(1), attributes(5)

```

## DIAGNOSTICS

```     x is unimplemented
x is an octal number.

out of space
The free list is exhausted (too many digits).

out of stack space
Too many pushes onto the stack (stack overflow).

empty stack
Too many pops from the stack (stack underflow).

nesting depth
Too many levels of nested execution.

divide by 0
Division by zero.

sqrt of neg number
Square root of a negative number is  not  defined  (no
imaginary numbers).

exp not an integer
dc only processes integer exponentiation.

exp too big
The largest exponent allowed is 999.

input base is too large
The input base x: 2<= x <= 16.

input base is too small
The input base x: 2<= x <= 16.

output base is too large
The output base must be no larger than  BC_BASE_MAX.

invalid scale factor
Scale factor cannot be less than 1.

scale factor is too large
A scale factor cannot be larger than  BC_SCALE_MAX.

symbol table overflow
Too many variables have been specified.

invalid index
Index cannot be less than 1.

index is too large
An index cannot be larger than  BC_DIM_MAX.

```

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