rdist - remote file distribution program


     rdist [-b] [-D] [-h] [-i] [-n] [-q] [-R] [-v]  [-w]  [-y]  [
     -d macro = value] [-f distfile]  [-m host]...

     rdist [-b] [-D] [-h] [-i] [-n]  [-q]  [-R]  [-v]  [-w]  [-y]
     -c pathname... [ login @] hostname [ : destpath]


     The rdist utility maintains  copies  of  files  on  multiple
     hosts. It preserves the owner, group, mode, and modification
     time of the master copies, and can update programs that  are
     executing. (Note: rdist does not propagate ownership or mode
     changes when the file contents have not changed.)  Normally,
     a  copy on a remote host is updated if its size or modifica-
     tion time differs from the original on the local host. (With
     the  -y  option  (younger mode), only the modification times
     are checked, not the size. See OPTIONS below.)

     There are two forms of the rdist command. In the first  form
     shown  in  the SYNOPSIS section above, rdist reads the indi-
     cated distfile for instructions  on  updating  files  and/or
     directories. If distfile is `-', the standard input is used.
     If no -f option is present, rdist first looks in its working
     directory  for distfile, and then for Distfile, for instruc-

     The second form shown in SYNOPSIS uses  the  -c  option  and
     specifies paths as command line options.

     In order to be able to use rdist across machines, each  host
     machine  must  have a /etc/host.equiv file, or the user must
     have an entry in the .rhosts file  in  the  home  directory.
     See hosts.equiv(4) for more information.


     The following options are supported:

     -b    Binary comparison. Performs a  binary  comparison  and
           updates  files if they differ, rather than merely com-
           paring dates and sizes.

     -c pathname ... [login@]hostname[:destpath]
           Copies each pathname to the named host; if destpath is
           specified,  it  will  not  update  any pathname on the
           named host. (Relative filenames are taken as  relative
           to  your  home  directory.)  If the `login@' prefix is
           given, the update is performed with  the  user  ID  of
           login.  If  the `:destpath' is  given, the remote file
           is installed as that pathname.

     -d macro=value
           Defines macro to have value. This option  is  used  to
           define  or override macro definitions in the distfile.
           value can be the empty string, one name, or a list  of
           names surrounded by parentheses and separated by white

     -D    Enables debugging.

     -f distfile
           Uses the description file distfile. A `-' as the dist-
           file argument denotes the standard input.

     -h    Follows symbolic links. Copies the file that the  link
           points to rather than the link itself.

     -i    Ignores unresolved links. rdist will normally  try  to
           maintain the link structure of files being transferred
           and warn the user if all the links cannot be found.

     -m host
           Limits which machines are to be updated.  Multiple  -m
           arguments can be given to limit updates to a subset of
           the hosts listed in the distfile.

     -n    Prints  the  commands  without  executing  them.  This
           option is useful for debugging a distfile.

     -q    Quiet mode. Does not display the files  being  updated
           on the standard output.

     -R    Removes extraneous files.  If  a  directory  is  being
           updated,  removes files on the remote host that do not
           correspond to those in the master  (local)  directory.
           This  is useful for maintaining truly identical copies
           of directories.

     -v    Verifies that the files are up  to  date  on  all  the
           hosts.  Any  files that are out of date are displayed,
           but no files are updated, nor is any mail sent.

     -w    Whole mode. The whole file name  is  appended  to  the
           destination  directory  name.  Normally, only the last
           component of a name is used when renaming files.  This
           preserves  the  directory structure of the files being
           copied, instead of flattening the directory structure.
           For  instance,  renaming  a  list  of  files  such  as
           dir1/dir2 to dir3 would  create  files  dir3/dir1  and
           dir3/dir2 instead of dir3 and dir3. When the -w option
           is used with a filename that begins with ~, everything
           except  the home directory is appended to the destina-
           tion name.

     -y    Younger mode. Does not update remote copies  that  are
           younger  than  the  master  copy, but issues a warning
           message instead. Only modification times are  checked.
           No comparison of size is made.


  White Space Characters
     <NEWLINE>, <TAB>, and <SPACE> characters are all treated  as
     white  space;  a  mapping continues across input lines until
     the start of the next mapping: either a single filename fol-
     lowed  by  a  `->'  or the opening parenthesis of a filename

     Comments begin with # and end with a NEWLINE.

     The distfile contains a sequence of entries that specify the
     files  to be copied, the destination files to be copied, the
     destination hosts, and what operations to perform to do  the
     updating. Each entry has one of the following formats:

     variable_name '=' name_list
     [ label: ] source_list '->' destination_list command_list
     [ label: ] source_list '::' time_stamp_file command_list

     The first format is used for defining variables. The  second
     format  is  used  for distributing files to other hosts. The
     third format is used for making lists  of  files  that  have
     been  changed  since some given date. The source list speci-
     fies a list of files and/or directories on  the  local  host
     that are to be used as the master copy for distribution. The
     destination list is the list of hosts to which  these  files
     are to be copied. Each file in the source list is added to a
     list of changes if the file is out of date on the host  that
     is  being  updated  (second format) or if the  file is newer
     than  the  time  stamp  file  (third  format).  Labels   are
     optional.  They  are  used to identify a command for partial
     updates. The colon (:) is  used  after  an  optional  label,
     while  the  double  colon  (::)  is used for making lists of
     files that have been changed since a certain date (specified
     by  the  date/time  of the time_stamp file). Typically, only
     notify is used with the '::' format of the command line.

     rdist has a limited macro facility. Macros are only expanded
     in  filename or hostname lists, and in the argument lists of
     certain primitives.  Macros cannot  be  used  to  stand  for
     primitives or their options, or the `->' or `::' symbols.

     A macro definition is a line of the form:

     macro = value

     A macro reference is a string of the form:


     although (as with make(1S)) the braces can be omitted if the
     macro name consists of just one character.

     The shell meta-characters: [, ], {, }, * and  ?  are  recog-
     nized and expanded (on the local host only) just as they are
     with csh(1). Metacharacters can be escaped by  prepending  a

     The ~ character is also expanded in the  same  way  as  with
     csh;  however,  it  is  expanded separately on the local and
     destination hosts.

     File names that do not begin with `/' or `~' are taken to be
     relative  to user's home directory on each destination host;
     they are not relative to the current working directory. Mul-
     tiple file names must be enclosed within parentheses.

     The following primitives can  be  used  to  specify  actions
     rdist is to take when updating remote copies of each file.

     install [-b] [-h] [-i] [-R] [-v] [-w] [-y] [newname]
           Copy out of date files and directories  (recursively).
           If  no newname operand is given, the name of the local
           file is given to the remote  host's  copy.  If  absent
           from   the   remote  host,  parent  directories  in  a
           filename's path are created. To  help  prevent  disas-
           ters,  a  non-empty  directory on a target host is not
           replaced with a regular file or  a  symbolic  link  by
           rdist.  However, when using the -R option, a non-empty
           directory is removed if the corresponding filename  is
           completely absent on the master host.

           The options for install have  the  same  semantics  as
           their  command  line  counterparts, but are limited in
           scope to a particular map. The login name used on  the
           destination  host is the same as the local host unless
           the destination name is of the format login@host.   In
           that  case, the update is performed under the username

     notify address ...
           Send mail to the indicated email address of the form:


           that lists the files updated and any errors  that  may
           have  occurred.  If  an  address  does  not  contain a
           `@host' suffix, rdist uses the name of the destination
           host to complete the address.

     except filename ...
           Omit from updates the files named as arguments.

     except_pat pattern ...
           Omit  from  updates  the  filenames  that  match  each
           regular-expression  pattern (see ed(1) for more infor-
           mation on regular expressions). Note that `\' and  `$'
           characters  must  be  escaped  in  the distfile. Shell
           variables can also be used within a  pattern,  however
           shell filename expansion is not supported.

     special [filename] ... "command-line"
           Specify a Bourne shell, sh(1) command line to  execute
           on  the  remote host after each named file is updated.
           If no filename argument is present,  the  command-line
           is  performed  for  every updated file, with the shell
           variable FILE set to the  file's  name  on  the  local
           host.  The  quotation marks allow command-line to span
           input lines in the distfile; multiple  shell  commands
           must be separated by semicolons (;).

           The default working directory for the shell  executing
           each  command-line is the user's home directory on the
           remote host.

     The rdist command is IPv6-enabled. See ip6(7P).


     Example 1: A sample distfile

     The following sample distfile instructs  rdist  to  maintain
     identical  copies of a shared library, a shared-library ini-
     tialized data file, several include files, and a  directory,
     on hosts named hermes and magus. On magus, commands are exe-
     cuted as super-user. rdist notifies merlin@druid whenever it
     discovers that a local file has changed relative to a times-
     tamp file. (Parentheses are used when the source or destina-
     tion  list  contains  zero or more names separated by white-

     HOSTS = ( hermes root@magus )

     FILES = ( /usr/local/lib/libcant.so.1.1
               /usrlocal/lib/libcant.sa.1.1 /usr/local/include/{*.h}
               /usr/local/bin )

     (${FILES}) -> (${HOSTS})
           install -R ;
     ${FILES} :: /usr/local/lib/timestamp
               notify merlin@druid ;


           user's trusted hosts and users

           system trusted hosts and users

           temporary file for update lists


     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWrcmdc                   |


     csh(1), ed(1),  make(1S),  sh(1),  stat(2),  hosts.equiv(4),
     attributes(5), ip6(7P)


     A complaint about mismatch  of  rdist  version  numbers  may
     really  stem from some problem with starting your shell, for
     example, you are in too many groups.


     The  super-user  does  not  have   its   accustomed   access
     privileges  on NFS mounted file systems. Using rdist to copy
     to such a file system may fail, or the copies may  be  owned
     by user "nobody".


     Source files must reside or be mounted on the local host.

     There is no easy way to have a special command executed only
     once after all files in a directory have been updated.

     Variable expansion only works for name lists;  there  should
     be a general macro facility.

     rdist aborts on files that have a negative modification time
     (before Jan 1, 1970).

     There should be a "force" option  to  allow  replacement  of
     non-empty  directories by regular files or symlinks. A means
     of updating file modes and  owners  of  otherwise  identical
     files is also needed.

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