ls - list the contents of a directory


     /usr/ucb/ls [-aAcCdfFgilLqrRstu1] file...


     For each filename that is a directory, ls lists the contents
     of  the  directory;  for  each  filename  that is a file, ls
     repeats its name and any  other  information  requested.  By
     default,  the output is sorted alphabetically. When no argu-
     ment is given, the current directory is listed. When several
     arguments   are   given,  the  arguments  are  first  sorted
     appropriately,  but  file  arguments  are  processed  before
     directories and their contents.

  Permissions Field
     The mode printed under the -l option contains 10  characters
     interpreted as follows. If the first character is:

     d     Entry is a directory.

     D     Entry is a door.

     b     Entry is a block-type special file.

     c     Entry is a character-type special file.

     l     Entry is a symbolic link.

     p     Entry is a FIFO (also known as "named  pipe")  special

     s     Entry is an AF_UNIX address family socket.

     -     Entry is a plain file.

     The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three
     bits  each.  The  first set refers to owner permissions; the
     next refers to permissions to others in the same user-group;
     and  the  last  refers  to  all others. Within each set, the
     three characters indicate permission respectively  to  read,
     to  write, or to execute the file as a program. For a direc-
     tory, "execute" permission is interpreted to mean permission
     to  search  the  directory. The permissions are indicated as

     r     The file is readable.

     w     The file is writable.

     x     The file is executable.
     -     The indicated permission is not granted.

     The group-execute permission character is given as s if  the
     file  has  the  set-group-id  bit  set;  likewise the owner-
     execute permission character is given as s if the  file  has
     the set-user-id bit set.

     The last character of the mode (normally x or `-')  is  true
     if  the  1000  bit  of  the mode is on. See chmod(1) for the
     meaning of this mode. The indications  of  set-ID  and  1000
     bits  of the mode are capitalized (S and T, respectively) if
     the corresponding execute permission is not set.

     A plus sign (+) appended to the list  of  permissions  indi-
     cates that an ACL is associated with the file.

     When the sizes of the files in a  directory  are  listed,  a
     total   count  of  blocks,  including  indirect  blocks,  is


     The following options are supported:

     -a    Lists all entries; in  the  absence  of  this  option,
           entries  whose  names  begin with a `.' are not listed
           (except for the privileged user, for whom ls  normally
           prints even files that begin with a `.').

     -A    Same as -a, except that `.' and `..' are not listed.

     -c    Uses time of last edit (or last mode change) for sort-
           ing or printing.

     -C    Forces multi-column output, with entries  sorted  down
           the  columns;  for ls, this is the default when output
           is to a terminal.

     -d    If argument is a directory, lists only its  name  (not
           its contents); often used with -l to get the status of
           a directory.

     -f    Forces each argument to be interpreted as a  directory
           and  lists  the  name  found in each slot. This option
           turns off -l, -t, -s, and -r, and  turns  on  -a;  the
           order  is  the  order  in  which entries appear in the

     -F    Marks directories with a  trailing  slash  (/),  doors
           with  a  trailing  greater-than  sign  (>), executable
           files with a  trailing  asterisk  (*),  FIFOs  with  a
           trailing  vertical  bar  (|),  symbolic  links  with a
           trailing  at-sign  (@),  and  AF_UNIX  address  family
           sockets with a trailing equals sign (=).

     -g    For ls, shows the group ownership of  the  file  in  a
           long output.

     -i    For each file, prints the i-node number in  the  first
           column of the report.

     -l    Lists in long format,  giving  mode,  ACL  indication,
           number  of  links,  owner,  size in bytes, and time of
           last modification for each file. If the file is a spe-
           cial  file  the  size  field  will instead contain the
           major and minor device numbers. If the  time  of  last
           modification  is  greater  than  six months ago, it is
           shown in the format `month date year'; files  modified
           within  six months show `month date time'. If the file
           is a symbolic link, the pathname of the linked-to file
           is printed preceded by `->'.

     -L    If argument is a symbolic  link,  lists  the  file  or
           directory  the  link  references  rather than the link

     -q    Displays non-graphic characters in  filenames  as  the
           character  ?;  for ls, this is the default when output
           is to a terminal.

     -r    Reverses the order of sort to get  reverse  alphabetic
           or oldest first as appropriate.

     -R    Recursively lists subdirectories encountered.

     -s    Gives size of each file, including any indirect blocks
           used to map the file, in kilobytes.

     -t    Sorts by time modified (latest first)  instead  of  by

     -u    Uses time of last access instead of last  modification
           for sorting (with the -t option) and/or printing (with
           the -l option).

     -1    Forces one entry per line output format; this  is  the
           default when output is not to a terminal.


     The following operand is supported:

     file  A path name of a file to be listed. If the file speci-
           fied is not found, a diagnostic message will be output
           on standard error.


     See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior  of  ls
     when encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2
    **31 bytes).


           to get group ID for `ls -g'

           to get user IDs for `ls -l' and `ls -o'


     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWscpu                    |


     ls(1), attributes(5), largefile(5)


     NEWLINE  and  TAB  are  considered  printing  characters  in

     The output device is assumed to be 80 columns wide.

     The option setting based on whether the output is a teletype
     is  undesirable  as  `ls -s' is much different than `ls -s |
     lpr'. On the other hand, not doing this setting  would  make
     old shell scripts which used ls almost certain losers.

     Unprintable characters in file names may confuse the  colum-
     nar output options.

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