automount - install automatic mount points


     /usr/sbin/automount [-t duration] [-v]


     The automount utility installs autofs mount points and asso-
     ciates  an  automount  map with each mount point. The autofs
     file system monitors attempts to access  directories  within
     it  and  notifies the automountd(1M) daemon. The daemon uses
     the map to locate a file system, which it then mounts at the
     point of reference within the autofs file system.  A map can
     be assigned to  an  autofs  mount  using  an  entry  in  the
     /etc/auto_master map or a direct map.

     If the file system is not  accessed  within  an  appropriate
     interval  (10  minutes  by  default),  the automountd daemon
     unmounts the file system.

     The file /etc/auto_master determines the  locations  of  all
     autofs  mount  points.  By  default, this file contains four

     # Master map for automounter
     /net          -hosts    -nosuid
     /home         auto_home
     /xfn          -xfn

     The +auto_master entry is a reference to an external NIS  or
     NIS+ master map. If one exists, then its entries are read as
     if they occurred in place of  the  +auto_master  entry.  The
     remaining  entries in the master file specify a directory on
     which an autofs mount will be made  followed  by  the  auto-
     mounter map to be associated with it. Optional mount options
     may be supplied as an  optional  third  field  in  the  each
     entry.   These  options  are used for any entries in the map
     that do not specify mount options explicitly. The  automount
     command  is  usually  run without arguments. It compares the
     entries /etc/auto_master with the current  list  of   autofs
     mounts  in  /etc/mnttab  and adds, removes or updates autofs
     mounts  to  bring  the  /etc/mnttab  up  to  date  with  the
     /etc/auto_master. At boot time it installs all autofs mounts
     from the master map. Subsequently, it may be run to  install
     autofs  mounts  for  new  entries  in  the master map or the
     direct map, or to perform unmounts  for  entries  that  have
     been removed from these maps.


     The following options are supported:

     - t duration
           Specifies a duration, in seconds, that a  file  system
           is  to  remain mounted when not in use. The default is
           10 minutes.

     -v    Verbose mode.  Notifies of autofs mounts, unmounts, or
           other non-essential information.


  Map Entry Format
     A simple map entry (mapping) takes the form:

     key [ -mount-options ] location ...

     where key is the full pathname of  the  directory  to  mount
     when used in a direct map, or the simple name of a subdirec-
     tory in an indirect map. mount-options is a  comma-separated
     list  of mount options, and location specifies a file system
     from which the directory may be mounted. In the  case  of  a
     simple  NFS  mount,  the  options  that  can be  used are as
     specified in mount_nfs(1M), and location takes the form:


     host is the name of the host from which to  mount  the  file
     system,  and pathname is the absolute pathname of the direc-
     tory to mount.

     Options to other file systems are documented  on  the  other
     mount_*     reference    manual    pages,    for    example,

  Replicated File Systems
     Multiple location fields can be specified for replicated NFS
     file  systems,  in which case  automount and the kernel will
     each try to use that information to  increase  availability.
     If  the  read-only  flag  is set in the map entry, automount
     mounts a list of locations that the kernel may  use,  sorted
     by  several  criteria.   When a server does not respond, the
     kernel will switch to an alternate server.  The sort  order-
     ing of automount is used to determine how the next server is
     chosen. If the read-only flag is  not  set,  automount  will
     mount the best single location, chosen by the same sort ord-
     ering, and new  servers will only be chosen when an  unmount
     has  been  possible,  and  a remount is done. Servers on the
     same local subnet are given the  strongest  preference,  and
     servers  on  the  local  net  are given the second strongest
     preference.  Among servers equally far away, response  times
     will determine the order if no weighting factors (see below)
     are used.

     If the list includes server locations  using  both  the  NFS
     Version  2  Protocol  and the NFS Version 3 Protocol,  auto-
     mount will choose only a subset of the server  locations  on
     the list, so that all entries will be the same protocol.  It
     will choose servers with the  NFS Version 3 Protocol so long
     as  an NFS Version 2 Protocol server  on a local subnet will
     not be ignored. See the System Administration Guide: IP Ser-
     vices for additional details.

     If each location in the list shares the same pathname then a
     single  location  may be used with a comma-separated list of


     Requests for a server may be weighted,  with  the  weighting
     factor  appended  to  the  server  name  as  an  integer  in
     parentheses. Servers without a weighting are assumed to have
     a value of zero (most likely to be selected).  Progressively
     higher values decrease the chance of being selected. In  the

     man -ro alpha,bravo,charlie(1),delta(4):/usr/man

     hosts alpha and bravo have the highest priority; host  delta
     has the lowest.

      Server proximity takes priority in the  selection  process.
     In  the  example  above,  if the server delta is on the same
     network segment as the client, but the others  are  on  dif-
     ferent  network  segments,  then delta will be selected; the
     weighting value is ignored.  The weighting has  effect  only
     when selecting between servers with the same network proxim-

     In cases where each server has a different export point, the
     weighting can still be applied. For example:

     man -ro alpha:/usr/man  bravo,charlie(1):/usr/share/man

     A mapping can be continued across input  lines  by  escaping
     the  NEWLINE  with  a  backslash  (\)  Comments begin with a
     number sign (#) and end at the subsequent <NEWLINE>.

  Map Key Substitution
     The ampersand (&) character is expanded to the value of  the
     key field for the entry in which it occurs. In this case:

     jane sparcserver:/home/&

     the & expands to jane.

  Wildcard Key
     The asterisk (*) character, when supplied as the key  field,
     is  recognized  as  the  catch-all entry. Such an entry will
     match any key not previously matched. For instance,  if  the
     following entry appeared in the indirect map for /config:

     *         &:/export/config/&

     this would allow automatic mounts in /config of  any  remote
     file system whose location could be specified as:


  Variable Substitution
     Client specific variables can be used  within  an  automount
     map. For instance, if $HOST appeared within a map, automount
     would expand it to its current value for the  client's  host
     name. Supported variables are:

     ARCH          The application  architec-   The architecture  name.  For
                   ture  is  derived from the   example,  "sun4"  on a sun4u
                   output of uname -m           machine.
     CPU           The output of uname -p       The processor type.
                                                For example, "sparc"
     HOST          The output of uname -n       The host name.
                                                For example, "biggles"
     OSNAME        The output of uname -s       The OS name.
                                                For example, "SunOS"
     OSREL         The output of uname -r       The OS release name.
                                                For example "5.3"
     OSVERS        The output of uname -v       The OS version.
                                                For example, "beta1.0"
     NATISA        The output of isainfo -n     The native instruction set
                                                architecture for the system.
                                                For example, "sparcv9"

     If a reference needs to be protected  from  affixed  charac-
     ters,  you  can surround the variable name with curly braces

  Multiple Mounts
     A multiple mount entry takes the form:

     key [-mount-options] [[mountpoint] [-mount-options] location...]...

     The initial /[mountpoint] is optional for  the  first  mount
     and  mandatory  for  all  subsequent  mounts.   The optional
     mountpoint is taken as a pathname relative to the  directory
     named  by  key.  If  mountpoint  is  omitted  in  the  first
     occurrence, a mountpoint of / (root) is implied.

     Given an entry in the indirect map for /src

     beta     -ro\
       /           svr1,svr2:/export/src/beta  \
       /1.0        svr1,svr2:/export/src/beta/1.0  \
       /1.0/man    svr1,svr2:/export/src/beta/1.0/man

     All offsets must exist on the server under  beta.  automount
     will   automatically  mount  /src/beta,  /src/beta/1.0,  and
     /src/beta/1.0/man, as needed, from  either  svr1  or   svr2,
     whichever host is nearest and responds first.

  Other File System Types
     The automounter assumes NFS mounts as a default file  system
     type.  Other  file  system  types can be described using the
     fstype mount option. Other mount options  specific  to  this
     file system type can be combined with the fstype option. The
     location field must contain information specific to the file
     system  type.  If  the location field begins with a slash, a
     colon character must be prepended, for instance, to mount  a
     CD file system:

     cdrom -fstype=hsfs,ro   :/dev/sr0

     or to perform an autofs mount:

     src   -fstype=autofs    auto_src

     Note:  Use this procedure only if you are not  using  Volume

     Mounts using CacheFS are most  useful  when  applied  to  an
     entire  map as map defaults. The following entry in the mas-
     ter map describes cached home directory mounts.  It  assumes
     the default location of the cache directory, /cache.

     /home auto_home       -fstype=cachefs,backfstype=nfs

     See the  NOTES section for  information  on  option  inheri-

  Indirect Maps
     An indirect map allows you to specify mappings for the  sub-
     directories  you wish to mount under the directory indicated
     on the command line. In an indirect map, each  key  consists
     of  a  simple  name  that refers to one or more file systems
     that are to be mounted as needed.

  Direct Maps
     Entries in a direct map are associated directly with  autofs
     mount  points.  Each  key  is the full pathname of an autofs
     mount point. The direct map as a  whole  is  not  associated
     with any single directory.

  Included Maps
     The contents of another map can be  included  within  a  map
     with an entry of the form


     If mapname begins with a slash, it  is  assumed  to  be  the
     pathname of a local file. Otherwise, the location of the map
     is determined by the  policy  of  the  name  service  switch
     according    to   the   entry   for   the   automounter   in
     /etc/nsswitch.conf, such as

     automount: files nis

     If the name service is files, then the name is assumed to be
     that  of a local file in /etc. If the key being searched for
     is not found in the included map, the search continues  with
     the next entry.

  Special Maps
     There are three special maps available:  -hosts,  -xfn,  and
     -null.  The  -hosts  map is used with the /net directory and
     assumes that the map key is the hostname of an  NFS  server.
     The  automountd  daemon  dynamically  constructs a map entry
     from the server's list of exported file systems.  References
     to   a   directory  under  /net/hermes  will  refer  to  the
     corresponding directory relative to hermes root.

     The -xfn map is used to mount the  initial  context  of  the
     Federated  Naming  Service  (FNS)  namespace  under the /xfn
     directory.  For  more  information  on  FNS,   see   fns(5),
     fns_initial_context(5),  fns_policies(5),  and the Federated
     Naming Service Guide.

     The -null map cancels a previous map for the directory indi-
     cated.  This is most useful in the /etc/auto_master for can-
     celling entries that would otherwise be inherited  from  the
     +auto_master  include  entry.  To  be  effective,  the -null
     entries must be inserted before the included map entry.

  Executable Maps
     Local maps that have the execute bit set in their file  per-
     missions  will  be  executed by the automounter and provided
     with a key to be looked up as an  argument.  The  executable
     map  is expected to return the content of an automounter map
     entry on its stdout or no output  if  the  entry  cannot  be
     determined. A direct map cannot be made executable.

  Configuration and the auto_master Map
     When initiated without  arguments,  automount  consults  the
     master map for a list of autofs mount points and their maps.
     It mounts any autofs mounts that are  not  already  mounted,
     and  unmounts  autofs mounts that have been removed from the
     master map or direct map.

     The master map is assumed to be called auto_master  and  its
     location  is  determined  by the name service switch policy.
     Normally the master map is located initially as a local file

     The Solaris 2.6 release supports  browsability  of  indirect
     maps.  This  allows  all of the potential mount points to be
     visible, whether or not they  are  mounted.  The   -nobrowse
     option can be added to any indirect
      autofs map to disable browsing. For example:

     /net     -hosts      -nosuid,nobrowse
     /home    auto_home

     In this case, any hostnames would only be visible  in   /net
     after they are mounted, but all potential mount points would
     be  visible  under  /home.   The   -browse  option   enables
     browsability  of   autofs  file systems. This is the default
     for all indirect maps.


     The following exit values are returned:

      0    Successful completion.

     1     An error occurred.


           master automount map.

           map to support automounted home directories.

           the name service switch configuration file.


     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |


     isainfo(1),  ls(1),  uname(1),  automountd(1M),   mount(1M),
     mount_cachefs(  1M),  mount_nfs(1M),  attributes(5), fns(5),
     fns_initial_context(5), fns_policies(5), nfssec(5)

     System Administration Guide: IP Services


     autofs mount points  must  not  be  hierarchically  related.
     automount does not allow an autofs mount point to be created
     within another autofs mount.

     Since each direct map entry results in a  new  autofs  mount
     such maps should be kept short.

     Entries in both direct and indirect maps can be modified  at
     any  time.  The new information is used when automountd next
     uses the map entry to do a mount.

     New entries added to a master map or direct map will not  be
     useful until the automount command is run to install them as
     new autofs mount points. New entries added  to  an  indirect
     map may be used immediately.

     As of the Solaris 2.6 release, a listing (see ls(1)) of  the
     autofs  directory  associated with an indirect map shows all
     potential mountable entries. The attributes associated  with
     the potential mountable entries are temporary. The real file
     system attributes will only be shown once  the  file  system
     has been mounted.

     Default mount options can be assigned to an entire map  when
     specified  as  an  optional  third  field in the master map.
     These options apply only to map entries that have  no  mount
     options.  Note  that  map entities with options override the
     default options, as at this time, the options  do  not  con-
     catenate.  The concatenation feature is planned for a future

     When operating on a map  that  invokes  an  NFS  mount,  the
     default number of retries for the automounter is 0, that is,
     a single mount attempt, with no retries.  Note that this  is
     significantly  different  from  the  default (10000) for the
     mount_nfs(1M) utility.

     The Network Information Service (NIS) was formerly known  as
     Sun  Yellow Pages (YP). The functionality of the two remains
     the same.

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