fnmatch - match filename or path name
int fnmatch(const char *pattern, const char *string, int
The fnmatch() function matches patterns as described on the
fnmatch(5) manual page. It checks the string argument to
see if it matches the pattern argument.
The flags argument modifies the interpretation of pattern
and string. It is the bitwise inclusive OR of zero or more
of the following flags defined in the header <fnmatch.h>.
If set, a slash (/) character in string will be expli-
citly matched by a slash in pattern; it will not be
matched by either the asterisk (*) or question-mark
(?) special characters, nor by a bracket () expres-
If not set, the slash character is treated as an ordi-
If not set, a backslash character (\) in pattern fol-
lowed by any other character will match that second
character in string. In particular, "\\" will match a
backslash in string.
If set, a backslash character will be treated as an
If set, a leading period in string will match a period
in pattern; where the location of "leading" is indi-
cated by the value of FNM_PATHNAME:
o If FNM_PATHNAME is set, a period is "leading" if
it is the first character in string or if it
immediately follows a slash.
o If FNM_PATHNAME is not set, a period is "lead-
ing" only if it is the first character of
If not set, no special restrictions are placed on matching a
If string matches the pattern specified by pattern, then
fnmatch() returns 0. If there is no match, fnmatch() returns
FNM_NOMATCH, which is defined in the header <fnmatch.h>. If
an error occurs, fnmatch() returns another non-zero value.
The fnmatch() function has two major uses. It could be used
by an application or utility that needs to read a directory
and apply a pattern against each entry. The find(1) utility
is an example of this. It can also be used by the pax(1)
utility to process its pattern operands, or by applications
that need to match strings in a similar manner.
The name fnmatch() is intended to imply filename match,
rather than pathname match. The default action of this func-
tion is to match filenames, rather than path names, since it
gives no special significance to the slash character. With
the FNM_PATHNAME flag, fnmatch() does match path names, but
without tilde expansion, parameter expansion, or special
treatment for period at the beginning of a filename.
The fnmatch() function can be used safely in multithreaded
applications, as long as setlocale(3C) is not being called
to change the locale.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attri-
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
| MT-Level | MT-Safe with exceptions |
| CSI | Enabled |
find(1), pax(1), glob(3C), setlocale(3C), wordexp(3C),
Man(1) output converted with