live_upgrade - overview of Live Upgrade feature


     The Live Upgrade feature of the Solaris  operating  environ-
     ment  enables  you  to  maintain  multiple  operating system
     images on a single system. An image-called a  boot  environ-
     ment,  or BE-represents a set of operating system and appli-
     cation software packages. The BEs  might  contain  different
     operating system and/or application versions.

     On a system with the Solaris  Live  Upgrade  software,  your
     currently  booted  OS  environment  is  referred  to as your
     active, or current BE. You have one active, or  current  BE;
     all  others  are  inactive.  You  can  perform any number of
     modifications to inactive BEs on the same system, then  boot
     from  one  of  those  BEs.  If  there  is  a failure or some
     undesired behavior in the  newly  booted  BE,  Live  Upgrade
     software  makes  it  easy for you to fall back to the previ-
     ously running BE.

     Live Upgrade software includes a  full  suite  of  commands,
     listed  below  and  described in individual man pages, which
     implement all of the Live Upgrade  features  and  functions.
     The  software  also  includes  a  Forms  and  Menu  Language
     Interpreter-based user interface named lu(1M). (See  fmli(1)
     for  a  description  of  the  Forms and Menu Language Inter-
     preter.) The FMLI interface  implements  a  subset  of  Live
     Upgrade  functions. Unlike the command-line interfaces, out-
     put from the FMLI interface is not internationalizable.

     The following are some of the tasks  you  can  perform  with
     Live Upgrade software:

        o  You can make one or more copies of the currently  run-
           ning system.

        o  You can upgrade to a new OS version on a  second  boot
           environment,  then  boot from that environment. If you
           choose, you can then fall back to your  original  boot
           environment or boot from yet another environment.

        o  You can install application or OS packages to  a  boot
           environment, then boot from that environment.

        o  You can install OS patches to a boot environment, then
           boot from that environment.

        o  From a flash archive, you can install an OS to a  boot
           environment,  then  boot  from  that  environment. See
           flar(1M)  for  information  on   administering   flash

        o  You can split and rejoin file systems in a new BE. For
           example, you can separate /usr, /var, and /opt from /,
           putting them on their own partitions. Conversely,  you
           could  join  these  file systems on a single partition
           under /.

        o  You can mount any or all of the filesystems  of  a  BE
           that  is  not active, compare the files in any pair of
           BEs, delete or rename a BE, and perform other adminis-
           trative tasks.

     The Live Upgrade software supports upgrade  from  any  valid
     Solaris  installation  medium, including a CD-ROM, an NFS or
     UFS directory, or a flash archive. (See flash_archive(4) for
     a description of the flash archive feature.)

     In simplest terms, a BE, for Live Upgrade, consists  of  the
     disk  slice  containing  a  root  file  system  and the file
     system/device (usually  disk)  slice  entries  specified  in
     vfstab(4).  This  set  of  slices is not limited to a single
     disk. This means that you can have multiple BEs on a  single
     device,  or  have a BE spread across slices on multiple dev-

     The minimal requirement for a Live Upgrade BE is the same as
     for any Solaris boot environment: you must have root (/) and
     usr filesystems (which might both reside on /). All filesys-
     tems  except for /, /usr, /var, and /opt can be shared among
     multiple BEs, if you choose.

     Each BE must have a unique copy of  the  file  systems  that
     contain  the  OS-/,  /usr,  /var, and /opt. For Live Upgrade
     purposes, these are referred to as non-shareable  (sometimes
     referred  to as critical) file systems. With other file sys-
     tems, such as /export or /home, you have the option of copy-
     ing  the  files  to  a  new BE or, the default, sharing them
     among BEs. These are referred to as shareable file  systems.
     A  BE  is  made  up  of  a  unique  copy of one or more non-
     shareable file systems and zero or more copies of  shareable
     file systems.

     Live Upgrade commands support an option  (-X)  that  enables
     XML  output.  Characteristics  of the XML are specified in a
     DTD shipped with the product. XML  output  enables  program-
     matic parsing of portions of the command output.

     Live Upgrade supports the notion of  a  BE  description,  an
     optional  attribute  of a BE. A BE description can be of any
     length and format. It might be a text  string  or  a  binary
     file. See ludesc(1M) for details.

     Below is an example set of steps that you  might  follow  in
     the  use  of  Live Upgrade software. These steps specify the
     use of commands rather than lu(1M), the FMLI interface. Many
     Live  Upgrade  functions  are  accessible through lu. Except
     where lu does not support a function, the choice between  lu
     and  Live  Upgrade commands is a matter of your requirements
     and preferences.  The  following  example  is  by  no  means
     exhaustive  of  the  possibilities  of  the  use of the Live
     Upgrade software.

     1. You create a new BE, using lucreate(1M). The  first  time
        you create a BE on a given system, you must designate the
        current Solaris operating environment as a BE (give it  a
        name). You then specify a name and a set of device (disk)
        slices you want to use for the new BE. The lucreate  com-
        mand copies the contents of the current Solaris operating
        environment (now a BE) to the new BE.

        After you have created additional BEs, you can use  a  BE
        other  than  the  current  BE as the source for a new BE.
        Also, you can create an empty BE onto which you can later
        install a flash archive.

     2. Using luupgrade(1M), you upgrade the OS version  on  your
        new  BE (or on yet another BE you created with lucreate).
        The luupgrade enables you to  upgrade  an  OS  (from  any
        valid  Solaris  installation  medium,  including  a flash
        archive), add or remove packages (OS or application), and
        add or remove patches.

     3. You use luactivate(1M) to make the new BE  bootable.  The
        next time you reboot your system, you will come up in the
        new BE.

     4. Using lucompare(1M), you compare the system files on  two
        different  BEs.  This  utility  gives you a comprehensive
        list of the files that have differences.

     5. Using lumount(1M), you mount the filesystems of a BE that
        is not active, enabling you to make changes. When you are
        finished with the changes, use  luumount(1M)  to  unmount
        the BE's file systems.

     6. Upon booting a new BE, you discover  a  failure  or  some
        other undesirable behavior. Using the procedure specified
        in luactivate, you can fall back to the previous BE.

     7. Using ludelete then lucreate, you reassign  file  systems
        on  the  now-deleted  BE  to  different  disk slices. You
        separate /opt and /var from / on the new  BE.  Also,  you
        specify  that  swap  be  spread  over  slices on multiple

     The following is a summary of  Live  Upgrade  commands.  All
     commands require root privileges.

     lu    FMLI-based interface for  creating  and  administering

           Designate a BE as the BE to boot from  upon  the  next
           reboot of the system.

           Cancel a previously scheduled operation.

           Compare the contents of two BEs.

           Create a BE.

           Display the name of the current BE.

           Delete a BE.

           Add or change BE descriptions.

           List the file systems on a specified BE.

           Re-create a BE based on the active BE.

     lumount, luumount
           Mount, unmount file systems of a specified BE.

           Rename a BE.

           For all BEs on a system, report on  whether  a  BE  is
           active, active upon the next reboot, in the midst of a
           copy  operation,  and  whether  a  copy  operation  is
           scheduled for it.

           Upgrade an OS and install application  software  on  a
           BE. Such software includes flash archives, complete OS
           installations, OS and  application  packages,  and  OS


           list of BEs on the system


     lu(1M),   luactivate(1M),    lucancel(1M),    lucompare(1M),
     lucreate(1M),    lucurr(1M),    ludelete(1M),    ludesc(1M),
     lufslist(1M),   lumake(1M),    lumount(1M),    lurename(1M),
     lustatus(1M), luupgrade(1M), lutab(4)


     Correct operation of Solaris Live Upgrade  requires  that  a
     limited  set  of patch revisions be installed for a given OS
     version. Before installing or running Live Upgrade, you  are
     required to install the limited set of patch revisions. Make
     sure you have the most recently updated patch list  by  con-
     sulting  Search  for  the  infodoc
     72099 on the SunSolve web site.

     It is possible for an operating  system  upgrade  to  remove
     installed   patches.   Prior   to   such   an  upgrade,  use
     analyze_patches, as described in luupgrade(1M), to determine
     which, if any, patches will be removed.

     Live Upgrade supports the release it is distributed  on  and
     up  to  three  marketing  releases back. For example, if you
     obtained Live Upgrade with Solaris 9 (including a Solaris  9
     upgrade), that version of Live Upgrade supports Solaris ver-
     sions 2.6, Solaris 7, and Solaris 8, in addition to  Solaris
     9.   No  version  of Live Upgrade supports a Solaris version
     prior to Solaris 2.6.

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