sbpro - Sound Blaster Pro, Sound Blaster 16, and Sound Blas-
     ter AWE32 audio device driver




     The Creative  Labs  Sound  Blaster  family  of  audio  cards
     comprises  DMA-capable  ISA bus plug-in cards that provide 8
     and 16 bit mono and stereo  digitized  sound  recording  and
     playback  over  a  wide  range  of sampling rates. Each card
     includes a digital sound processor  and  mixing  capability.
     Some  of the cards also support more advanced audio features
     such as  FM synthesis, advanced signal processing,  advanced
     wave  effects,  and   MIDI  capability;  however,  the sbpro
     driver does not currently support those  advanced  features.
     The  features  and interfaces supported by the Solaris sbpro
     driver are described here and in audio(7I).

     Some Sound Blaster cards support optional non-audio capabil-
     ities such as  SCSI interfaces and  CD-ROM interfaces. These
     interfaces are not supported by the sbpro driver. The  Sound
     Blaster  16  optional  SCSI-2  interface is supported by the
     aic(7D) driver.

     The  sbpro  driver  also  supports  certain  Sound  Blaster-
     compatible audio devices, including some based on the ESS688
     audio chip.

     In addition, the driver supports some devices based  on  the
     Analog  Devices AD1847 and AD1848, and Crystal Semiconductor
     CS4231 chips. Any CS4231-based  devices  supported  by  this
     driver are programmed in AD1848 compatibility mode. There is
     no special support in this  driver  for  the  more  advanced
     CS4231  features. This family of devices will be referred to
     as the "AD184x family."


     The  Sound  Blaster  device  is  treated  as  an   exclusive
     resource,  meaning that only one process may open the device
     at a time. Since the Sound Blaster hardware does not support
     simultaneous  sound input and output, the  sbpro driver does
     not allow the simultaneous  access  of  the  device  by  two
     processes,  even  if  one tries to open it read-only and the
     other write-only.

     The sbpro driver will return "SUNW,sbpro" or "SUNW,sb16"  in
     the  name  field  of the audio_device structure. The version
     field will contain the version number  of  the  card's   DSP
     chip, and the config field will be set to "SBPRO" or "SB16".
     The  AWE32 is currently identified as an SB16.  In all  sub-
     jects  covered  in this man page, , the Sound Blaster  AWE32
     behaves the same as the Sound Blaster 16.

  Audio Data Formats
     The Sound Blaster Pro handles 8-bit samples. In  mono  mode,
     audio data may be sampled at rates from 4,000 to 44,100 sam-
     ples per second.  In stereo mode, samples may be handled  at
     the rates of 11,025 and 22,050 samples per second. The SB-16
     can sample 8-bit or 16-bit mono or stereo data in the  range
     of  5,000  to  44,100  Hz. Devices in the  AD184x family can
     handle sample rates up to 48,000 Hz.

     The Sound Blaster Pro hardware handles 8-bit linear  samples
     in excess-128 format. The Sound Blaster 16 handles that for-
     mat as well as 16-bit linear  samples  in  two's  complement
     format.  The  sbpro  driver will generate and accept data in
     these formats if AUDIO_ENCODING_LINEAR is  selected  in  the
     encoding  field  of the audio information structure.  16 bit
     precision is not available on the  Sound  Blaster  Pro.  The
     sbpro  driver  will  also  accept and generate mu-law format
     data (as in the Greek letter mu) if the  encoding  field  is
     set  to  AUDIO_ENCODING_ULAW.  In this case, driver software
     performs the translation between linear and mu-law  formats.
     mu-law  encoding  is designed to provide an improved signal-
     to-noise ratio at low  amplitude  levels.  To  achieve  best
     results  when using mu-law encoding, the audio record volume
     should be set so that typical amplitude  levels  lie  within
     approximately  three-fourths of the full dynamic range. Dev-
     ices in the  AD184x family support both mu-law and A-law  in
     hardware, and the driver allows either of those encodings to
     be selected.

  Audio Ports
     The Sound Blaster hardware does not support multiple  output
     devices,  so  the  play.port  field of the audio information
     structure only supports AUDIO_HEADPHONE.  Output  volume  is
     controlled  by  software.   The volume control thumbwheel on
     the back of the card should be turned all the way up to max-
     imum; otherwise no sound may be audible.

     The record.port field of  the  audio  information  structure
     allows  selection  of which audio source is used for record-
     ing,  and  may  be   set   to   one   of   AUDIO_MICROPHONE,
     AUDIO_LINE_IN,  or  AUDIO_CD.  These  select  input from the
     microphone jack, line-level  input  jack,  or  internal   CD
     input,  respectively.   The microphone input is treated as a
     mono source by the hardware, although the microphone jack is
     a  stereo  jack.   If  your  microphone has a mono plug, you
     should convert it to a  stereo  plug  using  an  appropriate
     adapter.   Line  and  CD are stereo sources.  When recording
     in  mono  mode,  both  stereo  channels  are  mixed   before



          Many audio devices come with a  software  utility  that
          allows  you  to select the IRQ and DMA settings. Often,
          this utility does not record parameters in  nonvolatile
          memory  but  in a configuration file used by DOS to set
          the card's configuration at each reboot. This  type  of
          configuration  file is not used by the Solaris software
          and does not affect the operation of the card with  the
          Solaris operating environment.

        o  Output volume is controlled by software. If you do not
           hear  sound, turn the volume thumbwheel on the back of
           the card to the maximum volume setting.

        o  Line-in and aux jacks  typically  require  line  level
           voltages,  such  as  output  from  a tape or CD player
           line-out jack or  from  a  powered  (battery-operated)
           microphone.  Mic  jacks  typically  require lower vol-
           tages. Consult the  manufacturer's  documentation  for
           your device requirements.

        o  The Sound Blaster Pro card cannot share  IRQ  settings
           with  any  other card installed in your system. If the
           hardware-jumpered IRQ setting conflicts with any other
           device,  change  the  IRQ on the Sound Blaster card to
           one listed under Supported Settings. The  most  common
           conflicts  occur with the LPT1 parallel port or a net-
           work card.

        o  For Sound Blaster 16 cards that have an on-board  SCSI
           subsystem,  the  audio  subsystem  needs  its  own I/O
           (port) address and an IRQ, distinct from those of  the
           SCSI subsystem.

  Supported Settings

          Default settings differ slightly between the SB Pro, SB
          Pro-2  and SB 16, SB AWE32, SB Vibra 16 cards. Only the
          0x220 and 0x240 settings are supported for SB  Pro  and
          SB  Pro-2  while additional addresses are supported for
          the SB 16, SB AWE32, and SB Vibra 16 cards.

     If your card supports Plug and Play, your  device  resources
     are configured automatically. Use the following settings for
     devices that don't support Plug and Play. Defaults  settings
     are shown in italics.

        o  IRQ Level: 2, 5, 7, 10

        o  I/O Address: 0x220, 0x240, 0x260, 0x280

        o  8-bit DMA Channel: 0, 1, 3

        o  16-bit DMA Channel: 5, 6, 7

     Settings for the Compaq Deskpro XL and Turtle  Beach  Tropez
     Card  are  provided below. For each device, the sbpro driver
     automatically chooses an unused DMA channel and IRQ line.

        o  Compaq Deskpro XL Business Audio With Built-in  AD1847
           Chip - I/O Address: 0x530, 0x604, 0xE80, 0xF40


          The  sbpro support for the AD1848 and compatibles  uses
          one  DMA channel for both play and record; simultaneous
          play/record is not supported.

        o  Turtle Beach  Tropez  Card  With  CS4231  Chip  -  I/O
           Address:  0x530  (The  MWSS  I/O address on the Turtle
           Beach Tropez card is 0x530 at power-up. It can only be
           changed  by  software  after  the  system is booted, a
           function that the Solaris operating  environment  does
           not  perform.  Therefore, the Tropez card is only sup-
           ported at I/O address 0x530).


          The Tropez card  comes  with  a  software  utility  for
          selecting  the  IRQ,  DMA,  and  MWSS compatibility I/O
          address settings used by the card. However, that  util-
          ity  does  not  record  those parameters in nonvolatile
          memory, but in a configuration file used by DOS to  set
          the  card's  configuration at each reboot. This type of
          configuration file is not used by the Solaris  software
          and  does not affect the operation of the card with the
          Solaris operating environment.

  Known Problems and Limitations
        o  Any Crystal Semiconductor  CS4231-based  devices  sup-
           ported  by  this  driver  are  programmed  in  AD1848-
           compatibility mode. This driver does not include  sup-
           port  for  advanced  CS4231  features;  in particular,
           simultaneous play/record.

        o  The Sound Blaster card cannot share IRQ settings  with
           any other card installed in your system. The most com-
           mon conflicts occur with the LPT1 parallel port  or  a
           network card.

        o  Some devices can detect that the  IRQ  is  in  use  by
           another  device  in  the  system.  If this occurs, the
           driver prints an error message:

           sbpro: MWSS_AD184x IRQ 7 is 'in use.'

     To correct this, change the IRQ setting of either the  audio
     device or the conflicting device. (Some devices are not able
     to detect such a conflict. The driver will try  to  use  the
     card, but that will likely result in the system hanging when
     the card is first used. Thus, it is important to check  that
     the IRQ that does not conflict with another device.)

        o  Although the sbpro driver supports A-law  encoding  on
           AD1848  and compatible devices, audiotool does not and
           produces an error message if you select  A-law  encod-
           ing.  Use  audioplay(1)  to  play  A-law encoded audio
           files, or use audioconvert(1)  to  convert  the  A-law
           sample  into a format that audiotool will accept, such
           as 16-bit linear. User-written applications can select
           A-law  format  using  the   sbpro driver on AD1848 and
           compatible devices.


          Some Compaq Deskpro XL Business Audio system units with
          built-in AD184x chip have the headphone jack wired with
          its left and right  channels  reversed.  As  a  result,
          left and right output is reversed. The line-out jack at
          the back of the unit works  as  expected.  For  optimum
          sound quality, use external microphone and speakers and
          not the ones built into the keyboard.

        o  Non-Plug and Play  Sound  Blaster  16,  Sound  Blaster
           Vibra 16, and Sound Blaster AWE32 cards are recognized
           as Sound Blaster 16 cards.

        o  The ISA version IBM Token Ring and compatible adapters
           will  not work in a system that contains a Sound Blas-
           ter card that is configured at the  default  I/O  port
           address  (0x220).  If possible, move the Sound Blaster
           card to port  address  0x240;  otherwise,  remove  the
           Sound Blaster device from the system.


           Linked to s/dev/sound/0

           Linked to  /dev/sound/0ctl

           First audio device in the system

           Audio control for first audio device

           Audio files


     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Architecture                | x86                         |


     audioconvert(1),    ioctl(2),    attributes(5),     aic(7D),
     audio(7I), streamio(7I)

     Creative Labs, Inc.  Sound Blaster Pro User Reference Manual


     The current driver implementation does not support the A-law
     encoding mode for Sound Blaster and compatible devices.

     The conversion of mu-law to 8-bit linear  format  for  Sound
     Blaster  and  compatible  devices can cause a loss of preci-
     sion, resulting in poor sound quality  in  cases  where  the
     original  recording  level  was  well below normal.  If this
     occurs while using the  Sound  Blaster  16  card,  audiocon-
     vert(1)  can  be used to convert the original mu-law data to
     16-bit linear format before play.  This  will  preserve  all
     the precision from the original mu-law sample.

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