echo - echo arguments


     /usr/bin/echo [string...]


     The echo utility writes its arguments, separated  by  BLANKs
     and  terminated  by  a  NEWLINE,  to the standard output. If
     there are no arguments, only the NEWLINE character  will  be

     echo is useful for producing diagnostics in  command  files,
     for  sending  known data into a pipe, and for displaying the
     contents of environment variables.

     The C shell, the Korn shell, and the Bourne shell  all  have
     echo  built-in  commands, which, by default, will be invoked
     if  the  user  calls  echo  without  a  full  pathname.  See
     shell_builtins(1).  sh's echo, ksh's echo, and /usr/bin/echo
     understand the back-slashed escape characters,  except  that
     sh's  echo does not understand \a as the alert character. In
     addition, ksh's echo, does not have an -n option. sh's  echo
     and  /usr/bin/echo  only  have  an  -n  option  if the SYSV3
     environment  variable  is  set  (see  ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES
     below).  If  it  is, none of the backslashed characters men-
     tioned above are available. csh's echo and /usr/ucb/echo, on
     the other hand, have an -n option, but do not understand the
     back-slashed escape characters.


     The following operand is supported:

           A string to be written  to  standard  output.  If  any
           operand  is  "-n", it will be treated as a string, not
           an option. The following character sequences  will  be
           recognized within any of the arguments:

           \a    Alert character.

           \b    Backspace.

           \c    Print line without new-line. All characters fol-
                 lowing the \c in the argument are ignored.

           \f    Form-feed.

           \n    New-line.

           \r    Carriage return.

           \t    Tab.

           \v    Vertical tab.

           \\    Backslash.

           \0n   Where n is the 8-bit character whose ASCII  code
                 is the 1-, 2- or 3-digit octal number represent-
                 ing that character.


     Portable applications should not use -n (as the first  argu-
     ment) or escape sequences.

     The printf(1) utility can be used portably to emulate any of
     the traditional behaviors of the echo utility as follows:

        o  The Solaris 2.6 operating  environment  or  compatible
           version's /usr/bin/echo is equivalent to:

           printf "%b\n" "$*"

        o  The /usr/ucb/echo is equivalent to:

     if [ "X$1" = "X-n" ]



             printf "%s" "$*"


             printf "%s\n" "$*"


     New applications are encouraged to  use  printf  instead  of


     Example 1: Finding how far below root your current directory
     is located

     You can use echo to determine how many subdirectories  below
     the  root  directory  (/) is your current directory, as fol-

        o  Echo your current-working-directory's full pathname.
        o  Pipe the output through tr  to  translate  the  path's
           embedded slash-characters into space-characters.

        o  Pipe that output through wc -w  for  a  count  of  the
           names in your path.

           example% /usr/bin/echo $PWD | tr '/' ' ' | wc -w

     See tr(1) and wc(1) for their functionality.

     Below are the different flavors for echoing a string without
     a NEWLINE:

     Example 2: /usr/bin/echo

     example% /usr/bin/echo "$USER's current directory is $PWD\c"

     Example 3: sh/ksh shells

     example$ echo "$USER's current directory is $PWD\c"

     Example 4: csh shell

     example% echo -n "$USER's current directory is $PWD"

     Example 5: /usr/ucb/echo

     example% /usr/ucb/echo -n "$USER's current directory is $PWD"


     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect the execution of echo: LANG, LC_ALL,

     SYSV3 This environment variable is used to provide  compati-
           bility  with INTERACTIVE UNIX System and SCO UNIX ins-
           tallation scripts. It is  intended  for  compatibility
           only and should not be used in new scripts.


     The following error values are returned:

     0     Successful completion.

     >0    An error occurred.


     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    | CSI                         | enabled                     |
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |


     echo(1B),  printf(1),   shell_builtins(1),   tr(1),   wc(1),
     ascii(5), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)


     When representing an 8-bit character  by  using  the  escape
     convention  \0n,  the n must always be preceded by the digit
     zero (0).

     For example,  typing:  echo  'WARNING:\07'  will  print  the
     phrase  WARNING:  and sound the "bell" on your terminal. The
     use of single (or double) quotes  (or  two  backslashes)  is
     required to protect the "\" that precedes the "07".

     Following the \0, up to three digits are used in  construct-
     ing  the  octal output character. If, following the \0n, you
     want to echo additional digits that  are  not  part  of  the
     octal  representation,  you must use the full 3-digit n. For
     example, if you want to echo "ESC 7" you must use the  three
     digits  "033" rather than just the two digits "33" after the

          2 digits         Incorrect:      echo"0337 | od -xc
                           produces:       df0a                    (hex)
                                           337                     (ascii)
          3 digits         Correct:        echo "00337" | od -xc
                           produces:       lb37 0a00               (hex)
                                           033 7                   (ascii)

     For the octal equivalents of each character, see ascii(5).

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