environ - user environment


     When a process begins execution, one of the exec  family  of
     functions  makes  available  an  array of strings called the
     environment; see exec(2). By convention, these strings  have
     the  form variable=value, for example, PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin.
     These environmental variables provide a way to make informa-
     tion about a program's environment available to programs.

     A name may be placed in the environment by the  export  com-
     mand  and  name=value  arguments  in sh(1), or by one of the
     exec functions. It is unwise to conflict with certain  shell
     variables  such  as  MAIL,  PS1,  PS2, and IFS that are fre-
     quently exported by .profile files; see profile(4).

     The following environmental variables can be used by  appli-
     cations  and  are  expected to be set in the target run-time

     HOME  The  name  of  the  user's  login  directory,  set  by
           login(1) from the password file; see passwd(4).

     LANG  The string used to specify internationalization infor-
           mation  that  allows  users  to  work  with  different
           national  conventions.  The   setlocale(3C)   function
           checks the LANG environment variable when it is called
           with "" as the locale argument.  LANG is used  as  the
           default  locale if the corresponding environment vari-
           able for a particular category is unset or  null.  If,
           however,   LC_ALL  is set to a valid, non-empty value,
           its contents are used to override both  the  LANG  and
           the other LC_* variables. For example, when invoked as
           setlocale(LC_CTYPE, ""), setlocale()  will  query  the
           LC_CTYPE  environment  variable  first to see if it is
           set and non-null. If LC_CTYPE is not set or null, then
           setlocale()  will  check the LANG environment variable
           to see if it is set and non-null.  If  both  LANG  and
           LC_CTYPE  are  unset  or  NULL, the default "C" locale
           will be used to set the LC_CTYPE category.

           Most commands will invoke setlocale(LC_ALL, "")  prior
           to any other processing. This allows the command to be
           used with different national  conventions  by  setting
           the appropriate environment variables.

           The following environment variables correspond to each
           category of setlocale(3C):

                 If set  to  a  valid,  non-empty  string  value,
                 override  the  values  of LANG and all the other

                 This category specifies the character  collation
                 sequence    being    used.     The   information
                 corresponding to this category is  stored  in  a
                 database   created  by the localedef(1) command.
                 This environment  variable  affects  strcoll(3C)
                 and strxfrm(3C).

                 This category  specifies  character  classifica-
                 tion, character conversion, and widths of multi-
                 byte characters. When LC_CTYPE is set to a valid
                 value,  the calling utility can display and han-
                 dle text and file names containing valid charac-
                 ters for that locale;   Extended Unix Code (EUC)
                 characters where any individual character can be
                 1,  2, or 3 bytes wide; and EUC characters of 1,
                 2, or 3 column widths. The  default  "C"  locale
                 corresponds  to  the  7-bit ASCII character set;
                 only characters from ISO 8859-1 are  valid.  The
                 information  corresponding  to  this category is
                 stored in a database created by the  localedef()
                 command.   This  environment variable is used by
                 ctype(3C), mblen(3C), and many commands, such as
                 cat(1), ed(1), ls(1), and vi(1).

                 This category specifies the language of the mes-
                 sage database being used. For example, an appli-
                 cation may have one message database with French
                 messages,  and another database with German mes-
                 sages. Message  databases  are  created  by  the
                 mkmsgs(1)  command. This environment variable is
                 used   by   exstr(1),   gettxt(1),   srchtxt(1),
                 gettxt(3C), and gettext(3C).

                 This category specifies the monetary symbols and
                 delimiters  used  for  a particular locale.  The
                 information corresponding to  this  category  is
                 stored in a database created by the localedef(1)
                 command. This environment variable  is  used  by

                 This  category   specifies   the   decimal   and
                 thousands     delimiters.     The    information
                 corresponding to this category is  stored  in  a
                 database   created  by  the localedef() command.
                 The default C locale corresponds to "."  as  the
                 decimal  delimiter  and  no thousands delimiter.
                 This   environment   variable   is    used    by
                 localeconv(3C), printf(3C), and strtod(3C).

                 This category specifies date and  time  formats.
                 The  information  corresponding to this category
                 is   stored   in   a   database   specified   in
                 localedef(). The default C locale corresponds to
                 U.S. date and  time  formats.  This  environment
                 variable is used by many commands and functions;
                 for  example:   at(1),   calendar(1),   date(1),
                 strftime(3C), and getdate(3C).

           Controls  which  standard  format  message  components
           fmtmsg  selects when messages are displayed to stderr;
           see  fmtmsg(1) and  fmtmsg(3C).

           A colon-separated list of network identifiers. A  net-
           work identifier is a character string used by the Net-
           work Selection component  of  the  system  to  provide
           application-specific  default  network search paths. A
           network identifier must consist of non-null characters
           and  must  have  a  length  of  at least 1. No maximum
           length is specified. Network identifiers are  normally
           chosen by the system administrator. A network identif-
           ier is also the first field in any /etc/netconfig file
           entry.   NETPATH   thus   provides  a  link  into  the
           /etc/netconfig file and the information about  a  net-
           work contained in that network's entry. /etc/netconfig
           is maintained by the system administrator. The library
           routines described in getnetpath(3NSL) access the NET-
           PATH environment variable.

           Contains a sequence of templates which catopen(3C) and
           gettext(3C)  use  when  attempting  to  locate message
           catalogs. Each template consists of an  optional  pre-
           fix,  one  or more substitution fields, a filename and
           an optional suffix. For example:


           defines that catopen() should  look  for  all  message
           catalogs  in  the  directory /system/nlslib, where the
           catalog name  should  be  constructed  from  the  name
           parameter  passed  to  catopen(),  %N, with the suffix

           Substitution fields consist of a % symbol, followed by
           a  single-letter  keyword.  The following keywords are
           currently defined:

           %N    The value of the name parameter passed to  cato-

           %L    The value of LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

           %l    The language element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

           %t    The territory element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

           %c    The codeset element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

           %%    A single % character.

     An empty string is substituted if the specified value is not
     currently  defined.  The  separators  "_"  and  "."  are not
     included in %t and %c substitutions.

     Templates defined in NLSPATH are separated by colons (:).  A
     leading  colon  or two adjacent colons (::) is equivalent to
     specifying %N. For example:


     indicates to catopen() that it should look for the requested
     message      catalog      in      name,     name.cat     and
     /nlslib/$LANG/name.cat. For gettext(), %N automatically maps
     to "messages".

     If NLSPATH is unset or NULL, catopen()  and  gettext()  call
     setlocale(3C),  which checks LANG and the  LC_* variables to
     locate the message catalogs.

           NLSPATH will normally be set up on a system wide basis
           (in /etc/profile) and thus makes the location and nam-
           ing conventions associated with message catalogs tran-
           sparent to both programs and users.

     PATH  The  sequence  of  directory  prefixes   that   sh(1),
           time(1),  nice(1), nohup(1), and other utilities apply
           in searching for a file known by  an  incomplete  path
           name.  The  prefixes  are  separated  by  colons  (:).
           login(1) sets  PATH=/usr/bin.  For  more  detail,  see

           Define severity levels and associate and print strings
           with  them  in  standard  format  error  messages; see
           addseverity(3C), fmtmsg(1), and  fmtmsg(3C).

     TERM  The kind  of  terminal  for  which  output  is  to  be
           prepared.  This  information is used by commands, such
           as vi(1), which may exploit  special  capabilities  of
           that terminal.

     TZ    Timezone information. The contents of this environment
           variable   are   used   by  the  functions  ctime(3C),
           localtime(3C), strftime(3C), and mktime(3C)  to  over-
           ride the default timezone. If TZ is not in the follow-
           ing form, it designates a path to a  timezone database
           file  relative  to  /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/, ignoring
           the first character if it is a colon  (:).  Otherwise,
           TZ has the form:


          std and dst
                Three or more bytes that are the designation  for
                the  standard  (std)  and  daylight  savings time
                (dst) timezones. Only std is required. If dst  is
                missing,  then  daylight  savings  time  does not
                apply  in  this  locale.  Upper-  and  lower-case
                letters  from  the  portable  character  set  are
                explicitly allowed. Any graphic  characters  from
                the portable character set except a leading colon
                (:) or digits, the comma (,), the minus (-),  the
                plus (+), and the null character are permitted to
                appear in these  fields,  but  their  meaning  is

                Indicates the value one must  add  to  the  local
                time to arrive at Coordinated Universal Time. The
                offset has the form:


                The minutes (mm) and seconds (ss)  are  optional.
                The  hour  (hh)  is  required and may be a single
                digit. The offset following std is  required.  If
                no  offset follows dst , daylight savings time is
                assumed to be one hour ahead  of  standard  time.
                One  or  more  digits  may  be used. The value is
                always interpreted as a decimal number. The  hour
                must  be  between  0 and 24, and the minutes (and
                seconds), if present, must be between 0  and  59.
                Out  of  range  values  may  cause  unpredictable
                behavior. If preceded by a "-", the  timezone  is
                east of the Prime Meridian. Otherwise, it is west
                of the Prime Meridian (which may be indicated  by
                an optional preceding "+" sign).

                Indicate when to change to and back from daylight
                savings time, where start/time describes when the
                change from standard  time  to  daylight  savings
                time  occurs,  and  end/time  describes  when the
                change back happens.  Each time  field  describes
                when, in current local time, the change is made.

                The formats of start and end are one of the  fol-

                Jn    The Julian day n (1 < n < 365).  Leap  days
                      are  not  counted.   That is, in all years,
                      February 28 is day 59 and March  1  is  day
                      60.  It is impossible to refer to the occa-
                      sional February 29.

                n     The zero-based Julian day (0 <  n  <  365).
                      Leap  days  are counted, and it is possible
                      to refer to February 29.

                      The d**th day, (0 < d < 6)  of  week  n  of
                      month  m  of  the  year (1 < n < 5, 1 < m <
                      12), where week 5 means "the last d-day  in
                      month  m"  which  may  occur  in either the
                      fourth or the fifth week). Week  1  is  the
                      first  week in which the  d**th day occurs.
                      Day zero is Sunday.

          Implementation specific defaults are  used  for   start
          and end if these optional fields are not given.

                The time has the same  format  as  offset  except
                that  no leading sign ("-" or "+" is allowed. The
                default, if time is not given is 02:00:00.


     cat(1), date(1), ed(1), fmtmsg(1),  localedef(1),  login(1),
     ls(1),   mkmsgs(1),   nice(1),   nohup(1),  sh(1),  sort(1),
     time(1),  vi(1),  exec(2),   addseverity(3C),   catopen(3C),
     ctime(3C),      ctype(3C),      fmtmsg(3C),     getdate(3C),
     getnetpath(3NSL), gettext(3C),  gettxt(3C),  localeconv(3C),
     mblen(3C),     mktime(3C),     printf(3C),    setlocale(3C),
     strcoll(3C),    strftime(3C),    strtod(3C),    strxfrm(3C),
     TIMEZONE(4), netconfig(4), passwd(4), profile(4)

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