ex - text editor


     /usr/bin/ex [ -| -s] [-l] [-L] [-R] [  -r  [file]]  [-t tag]
     [-v] [-V] [-x] [-wn] [-C] [+command | -c command]  file...

     /usr/xpg4/bin/ex [ -| -s] [-l] [-L] [-R]  [  -r  [file]]  [-
     t tag]  [-v]  [-V]  [-x]  [-wn] [-C] [+command | -c command]


     The ex utility is the root of a family of  editors:  ex  and
     vi.  ex is a superset of ed(1), with the most notable exten-
     sion being a display editing facility. Display based editing
     is the focus of vi.

     If you have a CRT terminal, you may wish to  use  a  display
     based  editor;  in  this  case see vi(1), which is a command
     which focuses on the display-editing portion of ex.

     If you have used ed you will find that, in addition to  hav-
     ing  all  of  the  ed commands available, ex has a number of
     additional features useful  on  CRT  terminals.  Intelligent
     terminals and high speed terminals are very pleasant to  use
     with vi. Generally, the ex editor uses far more of the capa-
     bilities  of  terminals  than ed does, and uses the terminal
     capability data base (see terminfo(4)) and the type  of  the
     terminal you are using from the environment variable TERM to
     determine how to drive your terminal efficiently. The editor
     makes  use  of  features such as insert and delete character
     and line in its visual command (which can be abbreviated vi)
     and  which  is the central mode of editing when using the vi

     The ex utility contains a  number  of  features  for  easily
     viewing  the  text  of  the  file.  The z command gives easy
     access to windows of text. Typing  ^D  (CTRL-D)  causes  the
     editor  to  scroll  a half-window of text and is more useful
     for quickly stepping through a file than just typing return.
     Of  course,  the  screen-oriented visual mode gives constant
     access to editing context.

     The ex utility gives you help when you  make  mistakes.  The
     undo  (u)  command  allows  you to reverse any single change
     which goes astray. ex gives you a lot of feedback,  normally
     printing  changed  lines, and indicates when more than a few
     lines are affected by a command so that it is easy to detect
     when a command has affected more lines than it should have.

     The  editor  also  normally  prevents  overwriting  existing
     files,   unless   you  edited  them,  so  that  you  do  not
     accidentally overwrite a file other than  the  one  you  are
     editing.  If the system (or editor) crashes, or you acciden-
     tally hang up the telephone, you can use the editor  recover
     command (or -r file option) to retrieve your work. This will
     get you back to within a few lines of where you left off.

     The ex utility has several features for  dealing  with  more
     than  one file at a time. You can give it a list of files on
     the command line and use the next (n) command to  deal  with
     each  in  turn. The next command can also be given a list of
     file names, or a pattern as used by the shell to  specify  a
     new set of files to be dealt with. In general, file names in
     the editor may be formed with  full  shell  metasyntax.  The
     metacharacter  `%'  is  also available in forming file names
     and is replaced by the name of the current file.

     The editor has a group of buffers whose names are the  ASCII
     lower-case  letters (a-z). You can place text in these named
     buffers where it is available to be  inserted  elsewhere  in
     the  file.  The  contents  of these buffers remain available
     when you begin editing a new file using the  edit  (e)  com-

     There is a command & in ex which repeats the last substitute
     command.  In  addition, there is a confirmed substitute com-
     mand. You give a range of substitutions to be done  and  the
     editor  interactively  asks  whether  each  substitution  is

     It is possible to ignore the case of letters in searches and
     substitutions.  ex  also  allows  regular  expressions which
     match words to be constructed. This is convenient, for exam-
     ple,  in  searching  for  the word ``edit'' if your document
     also contains the word ``editor.''

     ex has a set of options which you can set to  tailor  it  to
     your  liking. One option which is very useful is the autoin-
     dent option that allows the editor to supply  leading  white
     space  to align text automatically. You can then use ^D as a
     backtab and space or tab to move forward to align  new  code

     Miscellaneous useful features include  an  intelligent  join
     (j)  command  that supplies white space between joined lines
     automatically, commands < and > which shift groups of lines,
     and  the  ability  to  filter portions of the buffer through
     commands such as sort.


     The following options are supported:

     - | -s
           Suppress all interactive user feedback.  This is  use-
           ful when processing editor scripts.

     -l    Set up for editing LISP programs.

     -L    List the name of all files saved as the result  of  an
           editor or system crash.

     -R    Readonly mode; the readonly flag  is  set,  preventing
           accidental overwriting of the file.

     -r file
           Edit file after an editor or system  crash.  (Recovers
           the  version  of  file that was in the buffer when the
           crash occurred.)

     -t tag
           Edit the file containing the tag and position the edi-
           tor at its definition.

     -v    Start up in display editing state using  vi.  You  can
           achieve  the  same effect by simply typing the vi com-
           mand itself.

     -V    Verbose. When ex commands are read by means  of  stan-
           dard  input,  the  input  will  be  echoed to standard
           error. This may be useful when processing ex  commands
           within shell scripts.

     -x    Encryption option. Simulates the X command and prompts
           the  user  for  a key. This key is used to encrypt and
           decrypt text using the algorithm of the crypt command.
           The  X  command  makes  an educated guess to determine
           whether text read in is encrypted  or  not.  The  tem-
           porary   buffer   file  is  encrypted  also,  using  a
           transformed version of the key typed  in  for  the  -x

     -wn   Set the default window size to n. This is useful  when
           using the editor over a slow speed line.

     -C    Encryption option. Same as the -x option, except simu-
           lates  the C command. The C command is like the X com-
           mand, except that all text read in is assumed to  have
           been encrypted.

     +command | -c  command
           Begin editing by executing the specified  editor  com-
           mand (usually a search or positioning command).


     If both the -t tag and the -c command options are given, the
     -t tag will be processed first. That is, the file containing
     the tag is selected by -t and then the command is executed.


     The following operand is supported:

     file  A path name of a file to be edited.


     This section defines the ex states,  commands,  initializing
     options, and scanning pattern formations.

  ex States
           Normal and initial state.  Input prompted for by  ":".
           Your line kill character cancels a partial command.

           Entered by a, i, or c. Arbitrary text may be  entered.
           Insert  state normally is  terminated by a line having
           only "." on it, or, abnormally, with an interrupt.

           Entered by typing vi; terminated by  typing  Q  or  ^\

  ex Command Names and Abbreviations
     Command    Abbrevi-   Command    Abbrevi-    Command    Abbrevi-
     Name       ation      Name       ation       Name       ation

     abbrev     ab         map                    set        se

     append     a          mark       ma          shell      sh

     args       ar         move       m           source     so

     change     c          next       n           substitute s

     copy       co         number     nu          unabbrev   unab

     delete     d          preserve   pre         undo       u

     edit       e          print      p           unmap      unm

     file       f          put        pu          version    ve

     global     g          quit       q           visual     vi

     insert     i          read       r           write

     join       j          recover    rec         xit        x

     list       l          rewind     rew         yank       ya

  /usr/xpg4/bin/ex, ex Command Arguments
     For all of the ex commands listed below, if both a count and
     a  range  are  specified  for  a command that uses them, the
     number of lines affected will be taken from the count  value
     rather  than the range. The starting line for the command is
     taken to be the first line addressed by the range.

     Abbreviate          ab[brev] word rhs
     Append              [line]a[ppend][!]
     Arguments           ar[gs]
     Change              [range] c[hange][!] [count]
     Change Directory    chd[ir][!] [directory]; cd[!] [directory]
     Copy                [range] co[py] line  [flags];  [range]  t
                         line [flags]
     Delete              [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags]
     Edit                e[dit][!]  [+line][file];  ex[!]  [+line]
     File                f[ile] [file]
     Global              [range]  g[lobal]  /pattern/  [commands];
                         [range] v /pattern/ [commands]
     Insert              [line] i[nsert][!]
     Join                [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags]
     List                [range] l[ist] [count] [flags]
     Map                 map[!] [x rhs]
     Mark                [line] ma[rk] x; [line] k x
     Move                [range] m[ove] line
     Next                n[ext][!] [file ...]
     Number              [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags]; [range]
                         # [count] [flags]
     Open                [line] o[pen] /pattern/ [flags]
     Preserve            pre[serve]
     Print               [range] p[rint] [count] [flags]
     Put                 [line] pu[t] [buffer]
     Quit                q[uit][!]
     Read                [line] r[ead][!] [file]
     Recover             rec[over] file
     Rewind              rew[ind][!]
     Set                 se[t] [option[=[value]]...] [nooption...]
                         [option?...] [all]
     Shell               sh[ell]
     Source              so[urce] file
     Substitute          [range]                      s[ubstitute]
                         [/pattern/repl/[options] [count] [flags]]
     Suspend             su[spend][!]; st[op][!]
     Tag                 ta[g][!] tagstring
     Unabbreviate        una[bbrev] word
     Undo                u[ndo]
     Unmap               unm[ap][!] x
     Visual              [line] v[isual] [type] [count] [flags]
     Write               [range] w[rite][!] [>>]  [file];  [range]
                         w[rite][!]  [file];  [range]  wq[!]  [>>]
     Write and Exit      [range] x[it][!] [file]
     Yank                [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count]
     Adjust Window       [line] z [type] [count] [flags]
     Escape              ! command [range]! command
     Shift Left          [range] < [count] [flags]
     Shift Right         [range] > [count] [flags]
     Resubstitute        [range]  &  [options]  [count]   [flags];
                         [range]  s[ubstitute]  [options]  [count]
                         [flags];  [range]  ~   [options]   [count
     Scroll              EOF
     Write Line Number   [line] = [flags]
     Execute             @ buffer; * buffer

  ex Commands
     C             forced encryption
     X             heuristic encryption
     &             resubst
     CR            print next
     >             rshift
     <             lshift
     ^D            scroll
     z             window
     !             shell escape

  ex Command Addresses
     n             line n
     .             current
     $             last
     +             next
     -             previous
     +n            n forward
     %             1,$
     /pat          next with pat
     ?pat          previous with pat
     x-n           n before x
     x,y           x through y
     'x            marked with x
     "             previous context

  Initializing options
     EXINIT           place set's here in environment variable
     $HOME/.exrc      editor initialization file
     ./.exrc          editor initialization file
     set x            enable option x
     set nox          disable option x
     set x=val        give value val to option x
     set              show changed options
     set all          show all options
     set x?           show value of option x

  Most useful options and their abbreviations
     autoindent    ai          supply indent
     autowrite     aw          write before changing files
     directory                 pathname of directory for temporary
                               work files
     exrc          ex          allow vi/ex to read  the  .exrc  in
                               the current directory.  This option
                               is set in the EXINIT shell variable
                               or   in   the  .exrc  file  in  the
     ignorecase    ic          ignore case of letters in scanning
     list                      print ^I for tab, $ at end
     magic                     treat . [ * special in patterns
     modelines                 first  five  lines  and  last  five
                               lines executed as vi/ex commands if
                               they are of the form ex:command: or
     number        nu          number lines
     paragraphs    para        macro names that start paragraphs
     redraw                    simulate smart terminal
     report                    informs you if the number of  lines
                               modified  by  the  last  command is
                               greater  than  the  value  of   the
                               report variable
     scroll                    command mode lines
     sections      sect        macro names that start sections
     shiftwidth    sw          for < >, and input ^D
     showmatch     sm          to ) and } as typed
     showmode      smd         show insert mode in  vi
     slowopen      slow        stop updates during insert
     term                      specifies to vi the type of  termi-
                               nal  being used (the default is the
                               value of the  environment  variable
     window                    visual mode lines
     wrapmargin    wm          automatic line splitting
     wrapscan      ws          search around end (or beginning) of

  Scanning pattern formation
     ^             beginning of line
     $             end of line
     .             any character
     \<            beginning of word
     \>            end of word
     [str]         any character in str
     [^str]        any character not in str
     [xy]          any character between x and y
     *             any number of preceding characters


     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the  execution  of  ex: HOME, LANG,
     SHELL, and TERM.

           Override the system-selected horizontal screen size.

           Determine a list of ex commands that are  executed  on
           editor  start-up,  before  reading the first file. The
           list can contain multiple commands by separating  them
           using a vertical-line (|) character.

     LINES Override the  system-selected  vertical  screen  size,
           used  as  the  number  of lines in a screenful and the
           vertical screen size in visual mode.


     The following exit values are returned:

     0     Successful completion.

     >0    An error occurred.


           editor temporary

           named buffer temporary

           preserve command

           recover command

           error messages

           describes capabilities of terminals

           preservation directory  (where  login  is  the  user's

           editor startup file

           editor startup file


     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    | CSI                         | enabled                     |

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWxcu4                    |
    | CSI                         | enabled                     |
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |


     ed(1), edit(1),  grep(1),  sed(1),  sort(1),  vi(1),  curses
     (3CURSES),  term(4), terminfo(4), attributes(5), environ(5),

     Solaris Advanced User's Guide


     The vi and ex utilities are based on software  developed  by
     The  University of California, Berkeley California, Computer
     Science Division, Department of Electrical  Engineering  and
     Computer Science.


     Several options, although they  continue  to  be  supported,
     have  been  replaced  in  the  documentation by options that
     follow the Command Syntax Standard  (see  intro(1)).  The  -
     option has been replaced by -s, a -r option that is not fol-
     lowed with an option-argument has been replaced by  -L,  and
     +command has been replaced by -c command.

     The message file too large to recover with -r option,  which
     is  seen  when a file is loaded, indicates that the file can
     be edited and saved successfully, but if the editing session
     is lost, recovery of the file with the -r option will not be

     The z command prints the number of logical rather than  phy-
     sical lines. More than a screen full of output may result if
     long lines are present.

     File input/output errors do not print a name if the  command
     line -s option is used.

     The editing environment defaults  to  certain  configuration
     options.  When  an editing session is initiated, ex attempts
     to read the EXINIT environment variable. If it  exists,  the
     editor  uses  the  values  defined  in EXINIT, otherwise the
     values set in $HOME/.exrc are used. If $HOME/.exrc does  not
     exist, the default values are used.

     To use a copy of .exrc  located  in  the  current  directory
     other   than  $HOME,  set  the  exrc  option  in  EXINIT  or
     $HOME/.exrc. Options set in EXINIT can be turned  off  in  a
     local .exrc only if exrc is set in EXINIT or $HOME/.exrc.

     There is no easy way to do a single scan ignoring case.

     The editor does not warn if text is placed in named  buffers
     and not used before exiting the editor.

     Null characters are discarded  in  input  files  and  cannot
     appear in resultant files.

     The standard Solaris version of ex will be replaced  by  the
     POSIX.2-conforming version (see standards(5)) in the future.
     Scripts which use the ex family of addressing  and  features
     should use the /usr/xpg4/bin version of these utilities.

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