eqn, neqn, checkeq - typeset mathematics test


     eqn [-d xy] [-f n] [-p n] [-s n] [file...]

     neqn [file...]

     checkeq [file...]


     eqn and neqn are language processors to assist in describing
     equations.  eqn  is  a  preprocessor  for  troff(1)  and  is
     intended for devices that can print  troff's output. neqn is
     a  preprocessor  for  nroff(1)  and is intended for use with
     terminals.  Usage is almost always:

     example% eqn file ... | troff
     example% neqn file ... | nroff

     If no files are specified, eqn and neqn read from the  stan-
     dard  input. A line beginning with .EQ marks the start of an
     equation. The end of an equation is marked by a line  begin-
     ning  with  .EN.  Neither of these lines is altered, so they
     may be defined in macro packages to get  centering,  number-
     ing,  and  so on.  It is also possible to set two characters
     as ``delimiters''; subsequent  text  between  delimiters  is
     also treated as eqn input.

     checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN


     The following options are supported:

     -dxy  Sets equation delimiters set to  characters  x  and  y
           with the command-line argument. The more common way to
           do this is with delim xy between .EQ and .EN. The left
           and  right delimiters may be identical. Delimiters are
           turned off by delim off appearing  in  the  text.  All
           text  that  is  neither between delimiters nor between
           .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.

     -fn   Changes font to n globally in the document.  The  font
           can  also be changed globally in the body of the docu-
           ment by using the gfont n directive, where  n  is  the
           font specification.

     -pn   Reduces subscripts and superscripts by n  point  sizes
           from  the  previous  size.   In  the absence of the -p
           option, subscripts and superscripts are reduced  by  3
           point sizes from the previous size.

     -sn   Changes point size to n globally in the document.  The
           point size can also be changed globally in the body of
           the document by using the gsize n directive, where   n
           is the point size.


     The following operands are supported:

     file  The nroff or troff file processed by eqn or neqn.


     The nroff version of this description depicts the output  of
     neqn  to  the  terminal  screen  exactly as  neqn is able to
     display it. To see an accurate depiction of the output, view
     the printed version of this page.

     Tokens within eqn are separated by  braces,  double  quotes,
     tildes, circumflexes, <SPACE>, <TAB>, or NEWLINE characters.
     Braces {} are used for grouping.  Generally  speaking,  any-
     where  a single character like x could appear, a complicated
     construction enclosed in braces may be used instead. A tilde
     (~)  represents  a  full <SPACE> in the output; a circumflex
     (^) half as much.

     Subscripts and superscripts:
           These are produced with the keywords sub and sup.

           x sub i
                 makes xi
           a sub i sup 2
                 produces ai **2

           e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}
                 gives e**x**2+y**2

           Fractions are made with over.

           a over b



     Square Roots:
           These are made with sqrt

           1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}
                 results in


_ 2 _

ax \/ +bx+c

           The keywords from and to  introduce  lower  and  upper
           limits on arbitrary things:

           lim from {n-> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i


                  lim _xi


     Brackets and Braces:
           Left and right brackets, braces, and the like, of  the
           right height are made with left and right.

           left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1

                 | 2  y
                 |x + __|
                 |      | = 1.
                      a |

                The right clause is optional.   Legal  characters
                after  left and right are braces, brackets, bars,
                c and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing
                at all (useful for a right-side-only bracket).

     Vertical piles:
           Vertical piles of things are made with   pile,  lpile,
           cpile, and rpile.

           pile {a above b above c}

SunOS 5.9 Last change: 12 Jul 2002 4

                There can be an arbitrary number of elements in a
                pile.    lpile  left-justifies,  pile  and  cpile
                center,  with  different  vertical  spacing,  and
                rpile right justifies.

           Matrices are made with matrix.

           matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2  }




                In addition, there is rcol for a  right-justified

     Diacritical marks:
           Diacritical marks are  made  with  dot,  dotdot,  hat,
           tilde, bar, vec, dyad, and under.

           x dot = f(t) bar

_ _


           y dotdot bar ~=~ n under

 = <I>n,            .y.

           x vec ~=~ y dyad

                 -x>= -y>

User Commands eqn(1)

     Successive display arguments:
           Successive display arguments can be lined  up.   Place
           mark  before  the  desired  lineup  point in the first
           equation; place lineup at the place that is to line up
           vertically in subsequent equations.

           Shorthands may be defined or existing  keywords  rede-
           fined with define:

           define thing % replacement %
                 Defines a new token called thing which  will  be
                 replaced  by  replacement  whenever  it  appears
                 thereafter. The % may be any character that does
                 not occur in replacement.

     Keywords and Shorthands:
           Keywords like sum int inf and shorthands  like  >=  ->
           and != are recognized.

     Greek letters:
           Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case,  as
           in alpha or GAMMA.

     Mathematical words:
           Mathematical words like  sin, cos, and  log  are  made
           Roman automatically.

     troff(1) four-character escapes like \(bu (o)  can  be  used
     anywhere.  Strings  enclosed  in  double  quotes  "..."  are
     passed  through  untouched;  this  permits  keywords  to  be
     entered  as  text, and can be used to communicate with troff
     when all else fails.


     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWdoc                     |

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