cd, chdir, pushd, popd, dirs - change working directory
pushd [+n | dir]
popd [+ n]
cd old new
The /usr/bin/cd utility changes the current directory in the
context of the cd utility only. This is in contrast to the
version built into the shell, as described below.
/usr/bin/cd has no effect on the invoking process but can be
used to determine whether or not a given directory can be
set as the current directory.
The Bourne shell built-in cd changes the current directory
to argument. The shell parameter HOME is the default argu-
ment. The shell parameter CDPATH defines the search path for
the directory containing argument. Alternative directory
names are separated by a colon (:). The default path is
<null> (specifying the current directory). Note: The
current directory is specified by a null path name, which
can appear immediately after the equal sign or between the
colon delimiters anywhere else in the path list. If argument
begins with `/', `.', or `.. ', the search path is not used.
Otherwise, each directory in the path is searched for argu-
ment. cd must have execute (search) permission in argument.
Because a new process is created to execute each command, cd
would be ineffective if it were written as a normal command;
therefore, it is recognized by and is internal to the shell.
(See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).
chdir is just another way to call cd.
If dir is not specified, the C shell built-in cd uses the
value of shell parameter HOME as the new working directory.
If dir specifies a complete path starting with ` / ', ` . ',
or ` .. ', dir becomes the new working directory. If neither
case applies, cd tries to find the designated directory
relative to one of the paths specified by the CDPATH shell
variable. CDPATH has the same syntax as, and similar
semantics to, the PATH shell variable. cd must have execute
(search) permission in dir. Because a new process is created
to execute each command, cd would be ineffective if it were
written as a normal command; therefore, it is recognized by
and is internal to the C-shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1), and
chdir changes the shell's working directory to directory
dir. If no argument is given, change to the home directory
of the user. If dir is a relative pathname not found in the
current directory, check for it in those directories listed
in the cdpath variable. If dir is the name of a shell vari-
able whose value starts with a /, change to the directory
named by that value.
pushd will push a directory onto the directory stack. With
no arguments, exchange the top two elements.
+n Rotate the n'th entry to the top of the stack and cd
dir Push the current working directory onto the stack and
change to dir.
popd pops the directory stack and cd to the new top direc-
tory. The elements of the directory stack are numbered from
0 starting at the top.
+n Discard the n'th entry in the stack.
dirs will print the directory stack, most recent to the
left; the first directory shown is the current directory.
With the -l argument, produce an unabbreviated printout; use
of the ~ notation is suppressed.
The Korn shell built-in cd command can be in either of two
forms. In the first form it changes the current directory
to arg. If arg is - the directory is changed to the previous
directory. The shell variable HOME is the default arg. The
variable PWD is set to the current directory. The shell
variable CDPATH defines the search path for the directory
containing arg. Alternative directory names are separated by
a colon (:). The default path is <null> (specifying the
current directory). Note that the current directory is
specified by a null path name, which can appear immediately
after the equal sign or between the colon delimiters any-
where else in the path list. If arg begins with a ` / ', ` .
', or ` .. ', then the search path is not used. Otherwise,
each directory in the path is searched for arg.
The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the
string old in the current directory name, PWD and tries to
change to this new directory.
The cd command may not be executed by rksh. Because a new
process is created to execute each command, cd would be
ineffective if it were written as a normal command; there-
fore, it is recognized by and is internal to the Korn shell.
(See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).
The following operands are supported:
An absolute or relative pathname of the directory that
becomes the new working directory. The interpretation
of a relative pathname by cd depends on the CDPATH
If a non-empty directory name from CDPATH is used, an abso-
lute pathname of the new working directory will be written
to the standard output as follows:
"%s\n", <new directory>
Otherwise, there will be no output.
See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
variables that affect the execution of cd: LANG, LC_ALL,
LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.
A colon-separated list of pathnames that refer to
directories. If the directory operand does not
begin with a slash ( / ) character, and the first
component is not dot or dot-dot, cd will search
for directory relative to each directory named in
the CDPATH variable, in the order listed. The new
working directory will be set to the first match-
ing directory found. An empty string in place of
a directory pathname represents the current
directory. If CDPATH is not set, it will be
treated as if it were an empty string.
HOME The name of the home directory, used when no
directory operand is specified.
A pathname of the previous working directory,
used by cd-.
PWD A pathname of the current working directory, set
by cd after it has changed to that directory.
The following exit values are returned by cd:
0 The directory was successfully changed.
>0 An error occurred.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attri-
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
| Availability | SUNWcsu |
| Interface Stability | Standard |
csh(1), ksh(1), pwd(1), sh(1), chdir(2), attributes(5),
Man(1) output converted with