sar - system activity reporter
sar [-aAbcdgkmpqruvwy] [-o filename] t [n]
sar [-aAbcdgkmpqruvwy] [-e time] [-f filename] [-i sec] [-
In the first instance, sar samples cumulative activity
counters in the operating system at n intervals of t
seconds, where t should be 5 or greater. If t is specified
with more than one option, all headers are printed together
and the output may be difficult to read. (If the sampling
interval is less than 5, the activity of sar itself may
affect the sample.) If the -o option is specified, it saves
the samples in filename in binary format. The default value
of n is 1.
In the second instance, no sampling interval is specified.
sar extracts data from a previously recorded filename,
either the one specified by the -f option or, by default,
the standard system activity daily data file
/var/adm/sa/sadd for the current day dd. The starting and
ending times of the report can be bounded using the -e and
-s arguments with time specified in the form hh[:mm[:ss]].
The -i option selects records at sec second intervals. Oth-
erwise, all intervals found in the data file are reported.
The following options modify the subsets of information
reported by sar.
-a Report use of file access system routines: iget/s,
-A Report all data. Equivalent to -abcdgkmpqruvwy.
-b Report buffer activity:
transfers per second of data between system
buffers and disk or other block devices.
accesses of system buffers.
cache hit ratios, that is, (1-bread/lread) as a
transfers using raw (physical) device mechanism.
-c Report system calls:
system calls of all types.
sread/s, swrit/s, fork/s, exec/s
specific system calls.
characters transferred by read and write system
calls. No incoming or outgoing exec(2) and
fork(2) calls are reported.
-d Report activity for each block device (for example,
disk or tape drive) with the exception of XDC disks
and tape drives. When data is displayed, the device
specification dsk- is generally used to represent a
disk drive. The device specification used to represent
a tape drive is machine dependent. The activity data
portion of time device was busy servicing a transfer
request, average number of requests outstanding during
read/s, write/s, blks/s
number of read/write transfers from or to device,
number of bytes transferred in 512-byte units.
average wait time in milliseconds.
average service time in milliseconds.
For more general system statistics, use iostat(1M), sar(1M),
See System Administration Guide: Basic Administration for
naming conventions for disks.
Select data up to time. Default is 18:00.
Use filename as the data source for sar. Default is
the current daily data file /var/adm/sa/sadd.
-g Report paging activities:
page-out requests per second.
pages paged-out per second.
pages per second placed on the free list by the
page stealing daemon.
pages per second scanned by the page stealing
the percentage of UFS inodes taken off the
freelist by iget which had reusable pages asso-
ciated with them. These pages are flushed and
cannot be reclaimed by processes. Thus, this is
the percentage of igets with page flushes.
Select data at intervals as close as possible to sec
-k Report kernel memory allocation (KMA) activities:
sml_mem, alloc, fail
information about the memory pool reserving and
allocating space for small requests: the amount
of memory in bytes KMA has for the small pool,
the number of bytes allocated to satisfy
requests for small amounts of memory, and the
number of requests for small amounts of memory
that were not satisfied (failed).
lg_mem, alloc, fail
information for the large memory pool (analogous
to the information for the small memory pool).
the amount of memory allocated for oversize
requests and the number of oversize requests
which could not be satisfied (because oversized
memory is allocated dynamically, there is not a
-m Report message and semaphore activities:
primitives per second.
Save samples in file, filename, in binary format.
-p Report paging activities:
page faults per second that are satisfied by
reclaiming a page currently in memory (attaches
page-in requests per second.
pages paged-in per second.
page faults from protection errors per second
(illegal access to page) or "copy-on-writes".
address translation page faults per second
(valid page not in memory).
faults per second caused by software lock
requests requiring physical I/O.
-q Report average queue length while occupied, and per-
cent of time occupied:
run queue of processes in memory and runnable.
these are no longer reported by sar.
-r Report unused memory pages and disk blocks:
average pages available to user processes.
disk blocks available for page swapping.
Select data later than time in the form hh[:mm].
Default is 08:00.
-u Report CPU utilization (the default):
%usr, %sys, %wio, %idle
portion of time running in user mode, running in
system mode, idle with some process waiting for
block I/O, and otherwise idle.
-v Report status of process, i-node, file tables:
proc-sz, inod-sz, file-sz, lock-sz
entries/size for each table, evaluated once at
ov overflows that occur between sampling points for
-w Report system swapping and switching activity:
swpin/s, swpot/s, bswin/s, bswot/s
number of transfers and number of 512-byte units
transferred for swapins and swapouts (including
initial loading of some programs).
-y Report TTY device activity:
rawch/s, canch/s, outch/s
input character rate, input character rate pro-
cessed by canon, output character rate.
rcvin/s, xmtin/s, mdmin/s
receive, transmit and modem interrupt rates.
Example 1: Viewing system activity
To see today's CPU activity so far:
Example 2: Watching system activity evolve
To watch CPU activity evolve for 10 minutes and save data:
example% sar -o temp 60 10
Example 3: Reviewing disk and tape activity
To later review disk and tape activity from that period:
example% sar -d -f temp
daily data file, where dd are digits representing the
day of the month
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attri-
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
| Availability | SUNWaccu |
sag(1), iostat(1M), sar(1M), vmstat(1M), exec(2), fork(2),
System Administration Guide: Basic Administration
The sum of CPU utilization might vary slightly from 100
because of rounding errors in the production of a percentage
Man(1) output converted with