in.named, named - Internet domain name server (DNS)


     in.named  [-d  debuglevel]  [-p   port#]   [   [-b   |   -c]
     config_file]  [-fqrv]  [-u  user_name]  [-g  group_name] [-t
     directory] [-w directory] [config_file]


     in.named is  the  Internet  domain  name  server.  For  more
     information  on  the   Internet  name-domain system, see RFC
     1033, RFC 1034 and RFC 1035.

     When run without any arguments, in.named reads  the  default
     configuration  file /etc/named.conf, reads any initial data,
     and listens for queries. If you give a config_file  argument
     at  the  end  of  the  command  line,  it  will override any
     config_file that  you  specified  by  using  the  -b  or  -c

     The named.conf(4) configuration file controls  some  of  the
     options and behavior for in.named.


     in.named supports the following options:

     -b|c configfile
           Use an alternative  configuration  file.  The  default
           value  for  configfile is /etc/named.conf. The config-
           file, if any, specified at  the  end  of  the  command
           line, overrides any value specified by this argument.

     -d debuglevel
           Print debugging information. The value  of  debuglevel
           determines  the  level  of messages to print. If nega-
           tive, debuglevel is set to 1.

           The  new  debugging  framework  is  considerably  more
           sophisticated  than  in previous versions of in.named.
           The logging statement in the configuration file allows
           for multiple, distinct levels of debugging for each of
           a large set of categories of events, for example,  for
           queries and transfers in and out. See named.conf(4).

     -f    Run this process in the foreground. The  process  will
           not  fork(2). By default, in.named runs as a daemon in
           the background.

     -g group_name
           Specify the group the server should run  as  after  it
           initializes. The value specified may be either a group
           name or a numeric group id.

     -p port#
           Use the specified remote port  number.  in.named  will
           send  queries  to  this  port number.  By default, the
           value is the standard port number, that is,  the  port
           number returned by getservbyname(3SOCKET) for the ser-
           vice domain.

           The in.named command previously supported the syntax:

           -p port#[/localport#]

           where port# was the first port  used  when  contacting
           remote  servers  and  localport#  was the service port
           bound by the local instance of in.named.

           The current usage  is  equivalent  to  the  old  usage
           without  localport#  specified. This functionality can
           be specified with the listen-on clause options  state-
           ment in the configuration file.

     -q    Trace all incoming queries. This option is  deprecated
           in  favor  of the queries logging category of the log-
           ging statement in named.conf. See named.conf(4).

     -r    Turn recursion off in the server. Responses come  only
           from  local  (primary or secondary) zones. You can use
           this option on root servers. By  default,  the  server
           uses recursion. This option is deprecated and is over-
           riden by the recursion clause of the options statement
           in the configuration file.

     -t directory
           Specify the directory that the server is to  chroot(2)
           into  when  it  finishes processing command line argu-

     -u user_name
           Specify the user that the server should run  as  after
           it initializes. The value of user_name may be either a
           user name or a numeric user id. If the  -g  option  is
           not  invoked,  then  the  group id will be the primary
           group of the user specified. Since  initgroups(3C)  is
           called,  all  of the user's group will be available to
           the server.

     -v    Report the version and exit.

     -w directory
            Set the working directory of the server.  The  direc-
           tory  clause  of  the  options statement overrides any
           value specified on the command line. The default work-
           ing directory is the current directory (".").

     For compatibility with older implementations any  additional
     argument  will  be interpreted as the name of the configura-
     tion file.  This argument overrides any  config_file  speci-
     fied by means of the -b or  -c options.  If no further argu-
     ment  is  given,  then  the  default   configuration   file,
     /etc/named.conf is used.


  Master File Format
     The master file consists of control information and  a  list
     of  resources for objects in the zone. The file has the fol-
     lowing form:

     $INCLUDE <filename><opt_domain>
     $ORIGIN <domain>
     $TTL <ttl>

     The fields are defined as follows:

           The value of domain can be ``.'' for root,  ``@''  for
           the  current  origin,  or  a  standard domain name. If
           domain is a standard domain name  that  does  not  end
           with  ``.'',  the  current  origin  is appended to the
           domain. Domain names ending with ``.'' are  not  modi-

           This field is used to define an origin for the data in
           an included file. It is equivalent to placing an $ORI-
           GIN statement before the first line  of  the  included
           file.  This field is optional.  Neither the opt_domain
           field nor $ORIGIN  statements  in  the  included  file
           modify the current origin for this file.

     ttl   An integer number that sets the  default  time-to-live
           for future records that do not have an explicit ttl.

           An optional integer number for the time-to-live field.
           If  not set the ttl is taken from the last $TTL state-
           ment.  If no $TTL statement has occurred then the  SOA
           minimum value is used, and a warning is generated.

           The object address type. Currently only  one  type  is
           supported,  IN,  for  objects  connected  to the DARPA

     type  This field contains one of the following  tokens.  The
           data  expected in the resource_record_data field is in

           A     A host address (dotted-quad IP address).

           NS    An authoritative name server (domain).

           MX    A mail exchanger (domain), preceded by a prefer-
                 ence value (0..32767), with lower numeric values
                 representing higher logical preferences.

           CNAME The canonical name for an alias (domain).

           SOA   Marks the start of a zone of authority   (domain
                 of  originating  host,  domain  address of main-
                 tainer, a serial number and the following param-
                 eters  in  seconds:  refresh,  retry, expire and
                 minimum ttl). See RFC 883 and RFC 2308.

           NULL  A NULL resource record (no format or data).

           RP    A  Responsible  Person  for  some  domain   name
                 (mailbox, TXT-referral).

           PTR   A domain name pointer (domain).

           HINFO Host information (cpu_type, OS_type).

           Resource records normally end at the end  of  a  line,
           but  may be continued across lines between opening and
           closing parentheses. Comments are introduced by  semi-
           colons and continue to the end of the line.

           There are other resource record types not shown  here.
           Some  resource record types may have been standardized
           in more recent RFCs, but they have not yet been imple-
           mented in this version of BIND

  SOA Record Format
     Each master zone file should begin with an  SOA  record  for
     the zone.  An example SOA record is as follows:

     @       IN      SOA     ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. rwh.ucbvax.Berkeley.EDU. (
                                         1989020501      ; serial
                                         10800   ; refresh
                                         3600    ; retry
                                         3600000 ; expire
                                         86400 ) ; minimum

     The SOA specifies a serial number that should be incremented
     each  time the master file is changed.  Note that the serial
     number can be given as a dotted number, but this is  a  very
     unwise  thing to do since the translation to normal integers
     is by means of concatenation rather than multiplication  and
     addition.  You  can spell out the year, month, day of month,
     and 0..99  version number and still fit inside the  unsigned
     32-bit  size of this field.  (It's true that we will have to
     rethink this strategy in the year  4294, but we're not  wor-
     ried about it.)

     Secondary servers  check  the  serial  number  at  intervals
     specified  by  the  refresh  time  in seconds; if the serial
     number changes, a zone transfer will be done to load the new
     data.  If a master server cannot be contacted when a refresh
     is due, the retry  time  specifies  the  interval  at  which
     refreshes  should be attempted. If a master server cannot be
     contacted within the interval given by the expire time,  all
     data  from  the  zone is discarded by secondary servers. The
     minimum  value  is  the  cache  time-to-live  for   negative
     answers. See RFC 2308.


           default name server configuration file.

           the process ID.

           in.named's current working directory, usually  set  by
           the "directory" options statement in named.conf.

           dump of the name server database.

           debug output.

           name server statistics data.


     See attributes(5)  for descriptions of the following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWinamd                   |
    | Interface Stability         | Standard  BIND 8.2.4        |


     kill(1),      named-xfer(1M),       chroot(2),      fork(2),
     getservbyname(3SOCKET),    resolver(3RESOLV),    signal(3C),
     syslog(3C), resolv.conf(4), attributes(5)

     Andrews, M. RFC 2308, Negative Caching of DNS  Queries  (DNS
     NCACHE). Network Working Group. March 1998.

     Braden, R., editor.  RFC  1123, Requirements  for   Internet
     Hosts  - Applications  and  Support . Network Working Group.
     October 1989.

     Lotter, M. RFC 1033, Domain Administrators Operations Guide.
     Network Working Group. November 1987.

     Mockapetris, Paul. RFC  882, Domain Names  -  Concepts   and
     Facilities. Network  Working Group. November 1983.

     Mockapetris, Paul.  RFC 883, Domain Names  -  Implementation
     and Specification. Network Working Group. November 1983.

     Mockapetris, Paul. RFC   973,  Domain  System  Changes   and
     Observations. Network Working Group. January 1986.

     Mockapetris, Paul. RFC  1034, Domain Names -  Concepts   and
     Facilities. Network Working Group. November 1987.

     Mockapetris, Paul.  RFC 1035, Domain Names -  Implementation
     and Specification. Network Working Group. November 1987.

     Partridge, Craig. RFC 974,  Mail  Routing  and  the   Domain
     System. Network  Working Group. January 1986.

     Vixie, Paul, Dunlap, Kevin  J.,  Karels,  Michael  J.,  Name
     Server  Operations  Guide for BIND Internet Software Consor-
     tium. 1996.


     The  boot  file  directives  domain  and  suffixes  are  now
     obsolete. They have been replaced by a resolver-based imple-
     mentation of suffixing for partially-qualified domain names.
     The  earlier mechanisms failed under a number of situations,
     for example,  when  the  local  name  server  did  not  have
     complete information.

     The following signals have the specified effect when sent to
     the server process using the kill(1) command:

            Causes the server to read named.conf and  reload  the
           database.  SIGHUP  will also cause the server to check
           the serial number on all secondary zones.

           Dumps the current database and cache to named_dump.db.

           Dumps statistics  data  into  named.stats.  Statistics
           data is appended to the file.

           Saves any modified dynamic zones to  the  file  system
           and shuts down the server.

           Turns on debugging. Each additional   SIGUSR1   signal
           increments the debug level.

           Turns off debugging completely.

           Toggles logging of all incoming queries  by  means  of

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