ms - text formatting macros


     nroff -ms [options] filename...

     troff -ms [options] filename...


     This package of nroff(1) and troff(1) macro definitions pro-
     vides  a formatting facility for various styles of articles,
     theses, and books. When producing 2-column output on a  ter-
     minal  or  lineprinter,  or  when  reverse  line motions are
     needed, filter the output through col(1). All  external  -ms
     macros are defined below.

     Note: this  -ms macro package is an extended version written
     at  Berkeley  and  is  a superset of the standard  -ms macro
     packages as supplied by Bell Labs.  Some of  the  Bell  Labs
     macros  have  been removed; for instance, it is assumed that
     the user has little interest in  producing  headers  stating
     that the memo was generated at Whippany Labs.

     Many nroff and troff requests are unsafe in conjunction with
     this  package. However, the first four requests below may be
     used with impunity after initialization, and  the  last  two
     may be used even before initialization:

     .bp   begin new page

     .br   break output line

     .sp n insert n spacing lines

     .ce n center next n lines

     .ls n line spacing: n=1 single, n=2 double space

     .na   no alignment of right margin

     Font and point size changes with \f and \s are also allowed;
     for  example,  \fIword\fR will italicize word. Output of the
     tbl(1), eqn(1) and  refer(1)  preprocessors  for  equations,
     tables, and references is acceptable as input.


     Macro Name   Initial Value   Break? Reset?   Explanation
     .AB x        -               y               begin  abstract;  if  x=no  do  not
                                                  label abstract
     .AE          -               y               end abstract
     .AI          -               y               author's institution
     .AM          -               n               better accent mark definitions
     .AU          -               y               author's name
     .B x         -               n               embolden x;  if  no  x,  switch  to
     .B1          -               y               begin text to be enclosed in a box
     .B2          -               y               end boxed text and print it
     .BT          date            n               bottom title, printed  at  foot  of
     .BX x        -               n               print word x in a box
     .CM          if t            n               cut mark between pages
     .CT          -               y,y             chapter title: page number moved to
                                                  CF (TM only)
     .DA x        if n            n               force date x  at  bottom  of  page;
                                                  today if no x
     .DE          -               y               end display (unfilled text) of  any
     .DS x y      I               y               begin display with keep; x=I,L,C,B;
     .ID y        8n,.5i          y               indented  display  with  no   keep;
     .LD          -               y               left display with no keep
     .CD          -               y               centered display with no keep
     .BD          -               y               block display; center entire block
     .EF x        -               n               even page footer x (3 part  as  for
     .EH x        -               n               even page header x (3 part  as  for
     .EN          -               y               end displayed equation produced  by
     .EQ x y      -               y               break   out   equation;    x=L,I,C;
                                                  y=equation number
     .FE          -               n               end footnote to be placed at bottom
                                                  of page
     .FP          -               n               numbered footnote paragraph; may be
     .FS x        -               n               start footnote; x is optional foot-
                                                  note label
     .HD          undef           n               optional page header  below  header
     .I x         -               n               italicize x; if  no  x,  switch  to
     .IP x y      -               y,y             indented  paragraph,  with  hanging
                                                  tag x; y=indent
     .IX x y      -               y               index words x y and so on (up to  5
     .KE          -               n               end keep of any kind
     .KF          -               n               begin  floating  keep;  text  fills
                                                  remainder of page
     .KS          -               y               begin keep; unit kept together on a
                                                  single page
     .LG          -               n               larger; increase point size by 2
     .LP          -               y,y             left (block) paragraph.
     .MC x        -               y,y             multiple columns; x=column width
     .ND x        if t            n               no date in page footer; x  is  date
                                                  on cover
     .NH x y      -               y,y             numbered   header;   x=level,   x=0
                                                  resets, x=S sets to y
     .NL          10p             n               set point size back to normal
     .OF x        -               n               odd page footer x (3  part  as  for
     .OH x        -               n               odd page header x (3  part  as  for
     .P1          if TM           n               print header on first page
     .PP          -               y,y             paragraph with first line indented
     .PT          - % -           n               page title, printed at head of page
     .PX x        -               y               print index  (table  of  contents);
                                                  x=no suppresses title
     .QP          -               y,y             quote   paragraph   (indented   and
     .R           on              n               return to Roman font
     .RE          5n              y,y             retreat:  end  level  of   relative
     .RP x        -               n               released paper format;  x=no  stops
                                                  title on first page
     .RS          5n              y,y             right shift: start level  of  rela-
                                                  tive indentation
     .SH          -               y,y             section header, in boldface
     .SM          -               n               smaller; decrease point size by 2
     .TA          8n,5n           n               set TAB characters to  8n  16n  ...
                                                  (nroff)  or 5n 10n ... (troff)
     .TC x        -               y               print table  of  contents  at  end;
                                                  x=no suppresses title
     .TE          -               y               end of table processed by tbl
     .TH          -               y               end multi-page header of table
     .TL          -               y               title in boldface  and  two  points
     .TM          off             n               UC Berkeley thesis mode
     .TS x        -               y,y             begin  table;  if  x=H  table   has
                                                  multi-page header
     .UL x        -               n               underline x, even in troff
     .UX x        -               n               UNIX; trademark message first time;
                                                  x appended
     .XA x y      -               y               another index entry; x=page  or  no
                                                  for none;  y=indent
     .XE          -               y               end index entry (or series  of  .IX
     .XP          -               y,y             paragraph with first line indented,
                                                  others indented
     .XS x y      -               y               begin index entry; x=page or no for
                                                  none; y=indent
     .1C          on              y,y             one column format, on a new page
     .2C          -               y,y             begin two column format
     .]-          -               n               beginning of refer reference

     .[0          -               n               end  of  unclassifiable   type   of
     .[N          -               n               N=    1:journal-article,    2:book,
                                                  3:book-article, 4:report
               |               |               |
               |               |               |


     Formatting|distances can be controlled in -ms  by  means  of
     built-in  number  registers. For example, this sets the line
     length to 6.5 inches:     |               |
               |               |               |
     .nr  LL  6.5i             |               |
               |               |               |
     Here is a |table  of  number  registers  and  their  default
     values:   |               |               |
               |               |               |
     Name    | |Register Controls |  Takes Effect    |  Default
     PS      | |point size     |  |  paragraph |     |  10
     VS      | |vertical spacing  |  paragraph |     |  12
     LL      | |line length    |  |  paragraph |     |  6i
     LT      | |title length   |  |  next page |     |  same as LL
     FL      | |footnote length|  |  next .FS  |     |  5.5i
     PD      | |paragraph distance|  paragraph |     |  1v (if n), .3v (if t)
     DD      | |display distance  |  displays  |     |  1v (if n), .5v (if t)
     PI      | |paragraph indent  |  paragraph |     |  5n
     QI      | |quote indent   |  |  next .QP  |     |  5n
     FI      | |footnote indent|  |  next .FS  |     |  2n
     PO      | |page offset    |  |  next page |     |  0 (if n), ~1i (if t)
     HM      | |header margin  |  |  next page |     |  1i
     FM      | |footer margin  |  |  next page |     |  1i
     FF      | |footnote format|  |  next .FS  |     |  0 (1, 2, 3 available)
               |               |               |
               |               |               |
     When resetting  these  values,  make  sure| to  specify  the
     appropriate  units.  Setting the line length to 7, for exam-
     ple, will result in output|with one character per line. Set-
     ting  FF to 1 suppresses footnote superscripting; setting it
     to 2 also suppresses indentation of the first line; and set-
     ting it to|3 produces an .IP-like footnote|paragraph.
               |               |               |
     Here is a list of string registers available  in  -ms;  they
     may be used anywhere in the text:         |
               |               |               |
     Name      |      String's Function        |
     \*Q       |      quote (" in nroff, " in troff )
     \*U       |      unquote (" in nroff, " in|troff )
     \*-              dash (-- in nroff, - in troff )
     \*(MO            month (month of the year)
     \*(DY            day (current date)
     \**              automatically numbered footnote
     \*'              acute accent (before letter)
     \*`              grave accent (before letter)
     \*^              circumflex (before letter)
     \*,              cedilla (before letter)
     \*:              umlaut (before letter)
     \*~              tilde (before letter)
     When using the|extended accent  mark  definitions  available
     with  .AM,  these  strings  should  come  after, rather than
     before, the letter to be accented.




     col(1), eqn(1), nroff(1), refer(1), tbl(1), troff(1)


     Floating keeps|and regular keeps are diverted  to  the  same
     space,  so  they  cannot  be mixed together with predictable
     results.      |

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