man - find and display reference manual pages


     man [-] [-adFlrt] [-M path] [-T macro-package]  [-s section]

     man [-M path] -k keyword...

     man [-M path] -f file...


     The man command  displays  information  from  the  reference
     manuals.  It  displays complete manual pages that you select
     by name, or one-line summaries selected  either  by  keyword
     (-k),  or  by  the  name  of  an associated file (-f). If no
     manual page is located, man prints an error message.

  Source Format
     Reference Manual pages are marked up with either nroff  (see
     nroff(1))  or  SGML  (Standard  Generalized Markup Language)
     tags (see sgml(5)). The man command recognizes the  type  of
     markup  and  processes  the  file  accordingly.  The various
     source files are kept in separate directories  depending  on
     the type of markup.

  Location of Manual Pages
     The online Reference Manual page directories are convention-
     ally  located  in  /usr/share/man.  The  nroff  sources  are
     located in the /usr/share/man/man*  directories.  The   SGML
     sources are located in the /usr/share/man/sman* directories.
     Each directory corresponds to a section of the manual. Since
     these  directories  are  optionally  installed, they may not
     reside on your host. You may have to  mount   /usr/share/man
     from a host on which they do reside.

     If  there  are  preformatted,  up-to-date  versions  in  the
     corresponding  cat* or fmt* directories, man simply displays
     or prints those versions. If  the  preformatted  version  of
     interest  is  out of date or missing, man reformats it prior
     to display and will store the preformatted version if   cat*
     or  fmt* is writable.   The  windex database is not updated.
     See  catman(1M). If directories for  the  preformatted  ver-
     sions are not provided,  man reformats a page whenever it is
     requested. man uses a temporary file to store the  formatted
     text during display.

     If the standard output is not a terminal, or if the `-' flag
     is  given,  man  pipes its output through cat(1). Otherwise,
     man pipes its output through more(1) to  handle  paging  and
     underlining on the screen.


     The following options are supported:

     -a    Shows all manual pages matching  name within the  MAN-
           PATH  search  path.  Manual pages are displayed in the
           order found.

     -d    Debugs. Displays what  a  section-specifier  evaluates
           to,  method  used for searching, and paths searched by

     -f file ...
           man attempts to locate manual pages related to any  of
           the  given files. It strips the leading path name com-
           ponents from each file, and then prints one-line  sum-
           maries  containing  the  resulting  basename or names.
           This option also uses the windex database.

     -F    Forces man to search all directories specified by MAN-
           PATH  or the file, rather than using the windex
           lookup database. This option is useful if the database
           is  not  up  to  date and it has been made the default
           behavior of the man command. The option therefore does
           not  have  to  be  invoked  and is documented here for
           reference only.

     -k keyword ...
           Prints out one-line summaries from the windex database
           (table of contents) that contain any of the given key-
           words.  The   windex   database   is   created   using

     -l    Lists all manual pages found matching name within  the
           search path.

     -M path
           Specifies an alternate search path for  manual  pages.
           path  is  a  colon-separated  list of directories that
           contain manual page directory subtrees.  For  example,
           if path is /usr/share/man:/usr/local/man, man searches
           for  name  in  the   standard   location,   and   then
           /usr/local/man.   When used with the -k or -f options,
           the -M option must appear first. Each directory in the
           path  is assumed to contain subdirectories of the form
           man* or sman* , one  for  each  section.  This  option
           overrides the MANPATH environment variable.

     -r    Reformats the manual page, but does  not  display  it.
           This replaces the man - -t name combination.

     -s section ...
           Specifies sections of the manual for  man  to  search.
           The directories searched for name are limited to those
           specified by  section.  section  can  be  a  numerical
           digit,  perhaps  followed  by  one  or more letters to
           match the desired section of the manual, for  example,
           "3libucb".   Also, section can be a word, for example,
           local, new, old, public. section can also be a letter.
           To  specify  multiple  sections, separate each section
           with  a  comma.  This  option  overrides  the  MANPATH
           environment  variable  and the file. See Search
           Path below for an explanation of how man conducts  its

     -t    man arranges for the  specified  manual  pages  to  be
           troffed  to  a  suitable  raster  output  device  (see
           troff(1)). If both the - and -t flags are  given,  man
           updates  the  troffed  versions of each named name (if
           necessary), but does not display them.

     -T macro-package
           Formats manual pages using macro-package  rather  than
           the     standard     -man     macros     defined    in
           /usr/share/lib/tmac/an. See  Search Path  under  USAGE
           for  a complete explanation of the default search path


     The following operand is supported:

     name  A keyword or the name of a standard utility.


     The usage of man is described below:

  Manual Page Sections
     Entries in the reference manuals  are  organized  into  sec-
     tions. A section name consists of a major section name, typ-
     ically a single digit, optionally followed by  a  subsection
     name, typically one or more letters. An unadorned major sec-
     tion name, for example, "9", does not act as an abbreviation
     for  the  subsections  of  that name, such as "9e", "9f", or
     "9s".  That is, each subsection must be searched  separately
     by  man  -s. Each section contains descriptions apropos to a
     particular reference  category,  with  subsections  refining
     these distinctions. See the intro manual pages for an expla-
     nation of the classification used in this release.

  Search Path
     Before searching for a given name, man constructs a list  of
     candidate directories and sections. man searches for name in
     the directories specified by the MANPATH  environment  vari-
     able.  If  this  variable  is  not  set,  /usr/share/man  is
     searched by default.
     Within the manual page directories, man confines its  search
     to the sections specified in the following order:

        o  sections specified on the command  line  with  the  -s

        o  sections embedded in the MANPATH environment variable

        o  sections specified in the file for each  direc-
           tory specified in the MANPATH environment variable

     If none of the above exist, man searches each  directory  in
     the manual page path, and displays the first matching manual
     page found.

     The file has the following format:


     Lines beginning with `#' and blank lines are considered com-
     ments,  and are ignored. Each directory specified in MANPATH
     can contain a manual page configuration file, specifying the
     default search order for that directory.

Formatting Manual Pages

     Manual pages are marked up in  nroff(1)  or  sgml(5).  Nroff
     manual  pages are processed by nroff(1) or troff(1) with the
     -man macro package. Please refer to man(5)  for  information
     on macro usage. SGML-tagged manual pages are processed by an
     SGML parser and passed to the formatter.

  Preprocessing Nroff Manual Pages
     When formatting an nroff manual page, man examines the first
     line to determine whether it requires special processing. If
     the first line is a string of the form:

     '\" X

     where X is separated from the `"' by a  single  <SPACE>  and
     consists  of  any combination of characters in the following
     list, man pipes its input to troff(1)  or  nroff(1)  through
     the corresponding preprocessors.

     e     eqn(1), or neqn for nroff

     r     refer(1)

     t     tbl(1)

     v     vgrind(1)

     If eqn or neqn is invoked, it will  automatically  read  the
     file  /usr/pub/eqnchar  (see  eqnchar(5)).  If  nroff(1)  is
     invoked, col(1) is automatically used.

  Referring to Other nroff Manual Pages
     If the first line of the nroff manual page is a reference to
     another manual page entry fitting the pattern:

     .so man*/sourcefile

     man processes the indicated file in  place  of  the  current
     one. The reference must be expressed as a path name relative
     to the root of the manual page directory subtree.

     When the second or any subsequent line starts with .so,  man
     ignores  it;  troff(1)  or nroff(1) processes the request in
     the usual manner.

  Processing SGML Manual Pages
     Manual pages are identified as being marked up  in  SGML  by
     the  presence of the string <!DOCTYPE. If the file also con-
     tains the string SHADOW_PAGE, the  file  refers  to  another
     manual  page  for  the content. The reference is made with a
     file entity reference to the manual page that  contains  the
     text.  This  is  similar  to  the  .so mechanism used in the
     nroff formatted man pages.


     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the execution of man: LANG, LC_ALL,

           A colon-separated list of directories; each  directory
           can be followed by a comma-separated list of sections.
           If set, its  value  overrides  /usr/share/man  as  the
           default  directory search path, and the file as
           the default section search path. The -M and  -s flags,
           in turn, override these values.)

     PAGER A program to use for  interactively  delivering  man's
           output  to  the screen. If not set, `more -s' is used.
           See more(1).

     TCAT  The name of the program  to  use  to  display  troffed
           manual pages.

     TROFF The name of the formatter to use when the -t  flag  is
           given. If not set, troff(1) is used.


     The following exit values are returned:

     0     Successful completion.

     >0    An error occurred.


           Root of the standard manual page directory subtree

           Unformatted nroff manual entries

           Unformatted  SGML manual entries

           nroffed manual entries

           troffed manual entries

           Table of contents and keyword database

           Standard -man macro package

           SGML document type definition files

           SGML style sheet and entity definitions directories

           Standard definitions for eqn and neqn
           Default search order by section


     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWdoc                     |
    | CSI                         | Enabled (see NOTES)         |
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |


     apropos(1),  cat(1),  col(1),  eqn(1),  more(1),   nroff(1),
     refer(1),    tbl(1),    troff(1),    vgrind(1),   whatis(1),
     catman(1M), attributes(5), environ(5),  eqnchar(5),  man(5),
     sgml(5), standards(5)


     The -f and -k options use  the  windex  database,  which  is
     created by catman(1M).

     The man command  is  CSI-capable.  However,  some  utilities
     invoked by the man command, namely, troff, eqn, neqn, refer,
     tbl, and vgrind, are not verified to be CSI-capable. Because
     of  this,  the man command with the -t option may not handle
     non-EUC data. Also, using the man  command  to  display  man
     pages  that  require  special  processing through eqn, neqn,
     refer, tbl, or vgrind may not be CSI-capable.


     The manual is supposed to be reproducible either on a photo-
     typesetter  or  on an ASCII terminal. However, on a terminal
     some information (indicated by font changes,  for  instance)
     is lost.

     Some dumb terminals cannot process the vertical motions pro-
     duced  by  the e (see eqn(1)) preprocessing flag. To prevent
     garbled output on these terminals, when you use e, also  use
     t,  to  invoke  col(1)  implicitly.  This workaround has the
     disadvantage of  eliminating  superscripts  and  subscripts,
     even  on  those terminals that can display them. <Control-q>
     will clear a terminal that gets confused by eqn(1) output.

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